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Emigration from the UK, 1870-1913 and 1950-1998

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  • Hatton, Timothy J.

    () (University of Essex)

Abstract

The international labour market has not been ‘globalised’ to the same degree over the last 40 years as have international markets for goods and capital. Immigration policies in developed economies clearly hinder the mobility of labour. But how much difference does it actually make? This paper compares emigration from Britain to four principal destinations in the era of free migration before 1914 with emigration to the same places since the 1960s. As the doors were kept open to British emigrants for longer than most, the ‘deglobalisation’ of British labour only dates from the 1960s. Since that time there has been a secular fall in British emigration, and this has been a major component in the transformation of the UK from a country of net emigration to one of net immigration. Before 1914 the economic and demographic forces that drove British emigration can be clearly identified. The same effects, applied to the later period, suggest that mass emigration from Britain should have continued until the early 1990s. But from the mid 1960s these influences became less powerful as they were increasingly inhibited by immigration policies in the principal destination countries. The decline in emigration is largely accounted for by shifts in policy, especially those that curtailed or abolished the preferences previously extended to settlers from the UK.

Suggested Citation

  • Hatton, Timothy J., 2003. "Emigration from the UK, 1870-1913 and 1950-1998," IZA Discussion Papers 830, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp830
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alan G. Green & David A. Green, 1999. "The Economic Goals of Canada's Immigration Policy, Past and Present," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(4), pages 425-451, December.
    2. Barry Chiswick & Timothy J. Hatton, 2003. "International Migration and the Integration of Labor Markets," NBER Chapters,in: Globalization in Historical Perspective, pages 65-120 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 1998. "The Age of Mass Migration: Causes and Economic Impact," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195116519.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kevin H. O’Rourke, 2012. "From Empire to Europe: Britain in the World Economy," Oxford University Economic and Social History Series _106, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    2. Bertocchi, Graziella & Strozzi, Chiara, 2004. "Citizenship Laws and International Migration in Historical Perspective," CEPR Discussion Papers 4737, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Gabriel Felbermayr & Isabella Reczkowski, 2012. "International Student Mobility and High-Skilled Migration: The Evidence," ifo Working Paper Series 132, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    4. Bandiera, Oriana & Rasul, Imran & Viarengo, Martina, 2013. "The Making of Modern America: Migratory Flows in the Age of Mass Migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 23-47.
    5. Dan-Olof Rooth, 2007. "Implicit Discrimination in Hiring – Real World Evidence," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0705, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    UK emigration; immigration policy;

    JEL classification:

    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • N3 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy

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