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Green Cards and the Location Choices of Immigrants in the United States, 1971-2000

Author

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  • Jaeger, David A.

    () (CUNY Graduate Center)

Abstract

This paper documents where immigrants who enter the U.S. with different types of visas (“green cards”) choose to live initially and what determines those location choices. Using population data on immigrants from the Immigration and Naturalization Service from 1971 to 2000, matched to data on state characteristics from the Integrated Public Use Microsamples of the U.S. Census, I estimate conditional logit models with the 48 contiguous U.S. states as the choice set. Like previous researchers, I estimate that immigrants have a higher probability of moving to states where individuals from their region of birth represent a larger share of the state population, with relatives of legal permanent residents responding most to this factor. I also find that, in general, immigrants in all admission categories respond to labor market conditions when choosing where to live, but that these effects were the largest for male employment-based immigrants and, surprisingly, refugees.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaeger, David A., 2006. "Green Cards and the Location Choices of Immigrants in the United States, 1971-2000," IZA Discussion Papers 2145, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2145
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bauer, Thomas & Epstein, Gil S & Gang, Ira, 2002. "Herd Effects or Migration Networks? The Location Choice of Mexican Immigrants in the US," CEPR Discussion Papers 3505, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Cragg, Michael & Kahn, Matthew, 1997. "New Estimates of Climate Demand: Evidence from Location Choice," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 261-284, September.
    3. George J. Borjas, 2001. "Does Immigration Grease the Wheels of the Labor Market?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 32(1), pages 69-134.
    4. Bartel, Ann P, 1989. "Where Do the New U.S. Immigrants Live?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 371-391, October.
    5. Borjas, George J., 1999. "The economic analysis of immigration," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1697-1760 Elsevier.
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    Cited by:

    1. Randall K.Q Akee & David A Jaeger & Konstantinos Tatsiramos, 2013. "The Persistence of Self-Employment Across Borders: New Evidence on Legal Immigrants to the United States," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 126-137.
    2. Klaus Nowotny, 2011. "Welfare Magnets, Taxation and the Location Decisions of Migrants to the EU," WIFO Working Papers 393, WIFO.
    3. Milo Bianchi & Paolo Buonanno & Paolo Pinotti, 2012. "Do Immigrants Cause Crime?," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(6), pages 1318-1347, December.
    4. Carl Lin, 2016. "How Do Immigrants From Taiwan Fare In The U.S. Labor Market?," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 61(05), pages 1-38, December.
    5. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Tommaso Frattini, 2008. "The labour market impact of immigration," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 478-495, Autumn.
    6. Dustmann, Christian & Glitz, Albrecht, 2011. "Migration and Education," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
    7. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz, 2015. "How Do Industries and Firms Respond to Changes in Local Labor Supply?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(3), pages 711-750.
    8. Martin Halla & Alexander F. Wagner & Josef Zweimüller, 2012. "Does Immigration into Their Neighborhoods Incline Voters Toward the Extreme Right? The Case of the Freedom Party of Austria," Economics working papers 2012-05, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    9. Daniel Chatman, 2014. "Explaining the “immigrant effect” on auto use: the influences of neighborhoods and preferences," Transportation, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 441-461, May.
    10. repec:wfo:wstudy:41226 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Duleep, Harriet & Jaeger, David A. & Regets, Mark, 2012. "How Immigration May Affect U.S. Native Entrepreneurship: Theoretical Building Blocks and Preliminary Results," IZA Discussion Papers 6677, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Brian C. Cadena & Brian K. Kovak, 2016. "Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 257-290, January.
    13. Peter Huber & Klaus Nowotny & Julia Bock-Schappelwein, 2010. "Qualification Structure, Over- and Under-qualification of the Foreign Born in Austria and the EU," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 41226, April.
    14. Martin Halla & Alexander F. Wagner & Josef Zweimüller, 2012. "Immigration and voting for the extreme right," ECON - Working Papers 083, Department of Economics - University of Zurich, revised Oct 2013.
    15. Klaus Nowotny & Dieter Pennerstorfer, 2011. "Ethnic Networks and the Location Choice of Migrants in Europe," WIFO Working Papers 415, WIFO.
    16. Arthur Grimes & Judd Ormsby & Kate Preston, 2017. "Wages, Wellbeing and Location: Slaving Away in Sydney or Cruising on the Gold Coast," Working Papers 17_07, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    17. Watson, Tara, 2013. "Enforcement and immigrant location choice," Working Papers 13-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    18. Or Levkovich & Jan Rouwendal, 2014. "Location Choices of highly Educated Foreign Workers: the Importance of Urban Amenities," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-093/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    19. Shinichiro Iwata & Koji Karato, 2007. "Homeless Networks: Testing Peer and Homed Networks Against Location Choice," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-522, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    settlement patterns; conditional logit; admission categories; immigrants;

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions

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