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Measurement of Globalization and Its Variations Among Countries, Regions and Over Time


  • Bhandari, Amit Kumar

    () (Rishi Bankim Chandra Evening College)

  • Heshmati, Almas

    () (Jönköping University, Sogang University)


The process of globalization is an international economic order which has led to the progressive integration of the world economy through the pulling the barrier of trade and greater mobility of factors of production. In addition the technological innovation also provides impetus to the progressive integration of the nations. The elements of globalization include free movement of goods and services, flow of capital, movement of labor and the transfer of technology. Many transition and developing countries through liberalization and increased openness to trade have benefited from the process. Apart from the economic benefits, globalization also indicates the flow of ideas, norms, information and peoples. There is a large heterogeneity in the degree of globalization over time and across countries and regions of the World, as well as within countries. The present study is an attempt to measure globalization by using both parametric and non-parametric approaches. The data cover a wide range of industrialized, transition and developing countries on the basis of their international integration. We identify the factors influencing globalization among the countries in the form of economic integration, personal contact, technology and political engagement. We isolate the contribution of the factors by quantifying the individual factor contribution to the overall integration. Finally, we investigate the links between globalization and labor market in India manufacturing industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Bhandari, Amit Kumar & Heshmati, Almas, 2005. "Measurement of Globalization and Its Variations Among Countries, Regions and Over Time," IZA Discussion Papers 1578, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1578

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    Cited by:

    1. Tausch, Arno & Heshmati, Almas, 2009. "Asabiyya: Re-Interpreting Value Change in Globalized Societies," IZA Discussion Papers 4459, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Andreano, M. Simona & Laureti, Lucio & Postiglione, Paolo, 2013. "Economic growth in MENA countries: Is there convergence of per-capita GDPs?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 669-683.
    3. repec:eee:tefoso:v:127:y:2018:i:c:p:271-280 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Parisa SAMIMI & Guan Choo LIM & Abdul Aziz BUANG, 2011. "Globalization Measurement: Notes on Common Globalization Indexes," Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology,, vol. 1(7), pages 1-20, December.
    5. Tausch, Arno, 2008. "The Efficiency of Social Expenditures in the Fight Against Extreme Poverty in Europe [Die Effizienz Der Sozialausgaben Im Kampf Gegen Extreme Armut in Europa]," MPRA Paper 10612, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Tausch, Arno, 2008. "On the world market trajectory of 21 major book publishing companies in globalization and European studies in 100+ countries. From “Amsterdam University Press” via “Palgrave” and “Nova Science Publish," MPRA Paper 9613, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    globalization; economic integration; manufacturing; composite index; India;

    JEL classification:

    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
    • O50 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - General

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