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An Arbitrage Model for the Stock Price Adjustment in the Dividend Period


  • Maria Rosa Borges


Following a dividend distribution, investors expect the stock price to decrease on the ex-dividend day. With no market imperfections, the price decrease should exactly match the amount of the dividend, thus eliminating all opportunities for profitable arbitrage. Allowing for different taxes on dividends and on capital gains results in a stock price adjustment ratio different from one, but there is still a unique equilibrium. With a simple model, considering four types of investors, we show that the consideration of transaction costs results in multiple possible equilibria (equilibrium zone), defined by the arbitrage boundaries of each type of investors. We also show that trading activity by the different types of investors is reflected in abnormal trading volume.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria Rosa Borges, 2007. "An Arbitrage Model for the Stock Price Adjustment in the Dividend Period," Working Papers Department of Economics 2007/09, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
  • Handle: RePEc:ise:isegwp:wp92007

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Boyd, John H & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1994. "Ex-dividend Price Behavior of Common Stocks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(4), pages 711-741.
    2. Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1995. "Investors' Heterogeneity, Prices, and Volume around the Ex-Dividend Day," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(02), pages 171-198, June.
    3. Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1986. "Tax-induced trading around ex-dividend days," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 287-319, July.
    4. Eades, Kenneth M. & Hess, Patrick J. & Kim, E. Han, 1984. "On interpreting security returns during the ex-dividend period," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 3-34, March.
    5. Bartholdy, Jan & Briown, Kate, 2002. "Testing for Multiple Types of Marginal Investor in Ex-day Pricing," Finance Working Papers 02-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Business Studies.
    6. Palani-Rajan Kadapakkam, 2000. "Reduction of Constraints on Arbitrage Trading and Market Efficiency: An Examination of Ex-Day Returns in Hong Kong after Introduction of Electronic Settlement," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2841-2861, December.
    7. Miller, Merton H & Scholes, Myron S, 1982. "Dividends and Taxes: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1118-1141, December.
    8. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1970. "Marginal Stockholder Tax Rates and the Clientele Effect," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(1), pages 68-74, February.
    9. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1988. "Short-term trading around ex-dividend days : Additional evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 291-298, September.
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    More about this item


    Dividend; Arbitrage; Market equilibrium; Transactions costs; Taxes;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading

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