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The Ex-Dividend Day Stock Price Behavior: The Case of Portugal

  • Maria Borges

    ()

This paper examines the ex-dividend day behavior of stock prices in the Lisbon Stock Market over the period 1990–1998, extending on international evidence and discussing the adequacy of competing theories, considering the Portuguese institutional environment. We find that on the ex-day stock prices fall by less than the dividend, which is in line with the findings of several studies based on US and non-US data. The main contributions of this paper are: (1) the rejection of a tax explanation for the stock price drop, because it is inconsistent with the Portuguese tax regime; (2) considering the very small stock price tick and the fact that dividends are always integer multiples of tick size, the discreteness hypothesis of Bali and Hite (Journal of Financial Economics 47(2):127–159, 1998) is also ruled out as a possible explanation for ex-day price movements. We find no evidence of tax related clientele effects. We propose that ex-day price behavior may be an anomaly, reflecting a less than efficient market with low liquidity levels, price stickiness, and insipid arbitrage trading. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 2008

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11293-007-9104-8
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Article provided by International Atlantic Economic Society in its journal Atlantic Economic Journal.

Volume (Year): 36 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
Pages: 15-30

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Handle: RePEc:kap:atlecj:v:36:y:2008:i:1:p:15-30
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  1. Bell, L. & Jenkinson, T., 2000. "New Evidence of the Impact of Dividend Taxation and on the Identity of the Marginal Investor," Economics Series Working Papers 9924, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Green, Richard C. & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1999. "Ex-day behavior with dividend preference and limitations to short-term arbitrage: the case of Swedish lottery bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 145-187, August.
  3. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1970. "Marginal Stockholder Tax Rates and the Clientele Effect," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(1), pages 68-74, February.
  4. Merton H. Miller & Franco Modigliani, 1961. "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34, pages 411.
  5. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov, 2002. "Tax Policy Changes and Ex-dividend Behavior: The Case of Sweden," Umeå Economic Studies 585, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  6. Bartholdy, Jan & Briown, Kate, 2002. "Testing for Multiple Types of Marginal Investor in Ex-day Pricing," Finance Working Papers 02-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Business Studies.
  7. Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1986. "Tax-induced trading around ex-dividend days," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 287-319, July.
  8. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron, 1974. "The effects of dividend yield and dividend policy on common stock prices and returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 1-22, May.
  9. Murray Frank & Ravi Jagannathan, 1997. "Why do stock prices drop by less than the value of the dividend? Evidence from a country without taxes," Staff Report 229, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  10. Shefrin, Hersh M. & Statman, Meir, 1984. "Explaining investor preference for cash dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 253-282, June.
  11. Miller, Merton H & Scholes, Myron S, 1982. "Dividends and Taxes: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1118-41, December.
  12. David A. Dubofsky, 1992. "A Market Microstructure Explanation of Ex-Day Abnormal Returns," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 21(4), Winter.
  13. Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1995. "Investors' Heterogeneity, Prices, and Volume around the Ex-Dividend Day," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(02), pages 171-198, June.
  14. Eades, Kenneth M. & Hess, Patrick J. & Kim, E. Han, 1984. "On interpreting security returns during the ex-dividend period," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 3-34, March.
  15. Lewellen, Wilbur G, et al, 1978. "Some Direct Evidence on the Dividend Clientele Phenomenon," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 33(5), pages 1385-99, December.
  16. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1988. "Short-term trading around ex-dividend days : Additional evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 291-298, September.
  17. John R. Graham & Roni Michaely & Michael R. Roberts, 2003. "Do Price Discreteness and Transactions Costs Affect Stock Returns? Comparing Ex-Dividend Pricing before and after Decimalization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2611-2636, December.
  18. Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1983. " Tax Reform and Ex-Dividend Day Behavior," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1157-79, September.
  19. Michaely, Roni & Murgia, Maurizio, 1995. "The Effect of Tax Heterogeneity on Prices and Volume around the Ex-dividend Day: Evidence from the Milan Stock Exchange," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(2), pages 369-99.
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