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Capital Injection, Monetary Policy, and Financial Accelerators

Author

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  • Naohisa Hirakata

    (Deputy Director and Economist, Research and Statistics Department, Bank of Japan (E-mail: naohisa.hirakata@boj.or.jp))

  • Nao Sudo

    (Deputy Director and Economist, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (E-mail: nao.sudou@boj.or.jp))

  • Kozo Ueda

    (Director and Senior Economist, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (E-mail: kouzou.ueda boj.or.jp))

Abstract

We evaluate the implications of spread-adjusted Taylor rules and capital injection policies in response to adverse shocks to the economy, using a variant of the financial accelerator model. Our model comprises the two credit-constrained sectors that raise external finance under the credit market imperfection: financial intermediaries (FIs) and entrepreneurs. Using a model calibrated to the United States, we find that a spread-adjusted Taylor rule mitigates (amplifies) the impact of adverse shocks when the shock is accompanied by a widening (shrinking) of the corresponding spread. We formalize a capital injection policy as a positive (negative) amount of injection to either of the two sectors in response to an adverse shock (a favorable shock). In contrast to a spread-adjusted Taylor rule, a positive injection boosts the economy regardless of the type of shock. The capital injection to the FIs has a greater impact on the economy compared with that to the entrepreneurs. Although the welfare implication of these policies varies depending on the source of economic downturn, our result shows more support for adopting the spread-adjusted Taylor rules than capital injections.

Suggested Citation

  • Naohisa Hirakata & Nao Sudo & Kozo Ueda, 2011. "Capital Injection, Monetary Policy, and Financial Accelerators," IMES Discussion Paper Series 11-E-10, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
  • Handle: RePEc:ime:imedps:11-e-10
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    Cited by:

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    2. Kok, Christoffer & Gross, Marco & Żochowski, Dawid, 2016. "The impact of bank capital on economic activity - evidence from a mixed-cross-section GVAR model," Working Paper Series 1888, European Central Bank.
    3. Laurent Clerc & Alexis Derviz & Caterina Mendicino & Stephane Moyen & Kalin Nikolov & Livio Stracca & Javier Suarez & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2015. "Capital Regulation in a Macroeconomic Model with Three Layers of Default," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 11(3), pages 9-63, June.
    4. Verona, Fabio & Martins, Manuel M.F. & Drumond, Inês, 2017. "Financial shocks, financial stability, and optimal Taylor rules," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 54(PB), pages 187-207.
    5. Nao Sudou, 2012. "Financial Markets, Monetary Policy and Reference Rates: Assessments in DSGE Framework," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 12-E-12, Bank of Japan.
    6. Kühl, Michael, 2014. "Mitigating financial stress in a bank-financed economy: Equity injections into banks or purchases of assets?," Discussion Papers 19/2014, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Yoo, Jinhyuk, 2017. "Capital injection to banks versus debt relief to households," IMFS Working Paper Series 111, Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute for Monetary and Financial Stability (IMFS).
    8. Naohisa Hirakata & Nao Sudo & Kozo Ueda, 2017. "Chained Credit Contracts And Financial Accelerators," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 55(1), pages 565-579, January.
    9. Lawrence Christiano & Daisuke Ikeda, 2011. "Government Policy, Credit Markets and Economic Activity," NBER Working Papers 17142, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Kühl, Michael, 2017. "Bank capital, the state contingency of banks’ assets and its role for the transmission of shocks," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 54(PB), pages 260-284.
    11. Ichiro Muto & Nao Sudo & Shunichi Yoneyama, "undated". "Productivity Slowdown in Japan's Lost Decades: How Much of It Can Be Attributed to Damaged Balance Sheets?," Bank of Japan Working Paper Series 16-E-3, Bank of Japan.
    12. Vadim Elenev & Tim Landvoigt & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, 2021. "A Macroeconomic Model With Financially Constrained Producers and Intermediaries," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 89(3), pages 1361-1418, May.
    13. Giese, Julia & Nelson, Benjamin & Tanaka, Misa & Tarashev, Nikola, 2013. "Financial Stability Paper No 21: How could macroprudential policy affect financial system resilience and credit? Lessons from the literature," Bank of England Financial Stability Papers 21, Bank of England.
    14. Hirakata, Naohisa & Sudo, Nao & Ueda, Kozo, 2011. "Do banking shocks matter for the U.S. economy?," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2042-2063.
    15. Naohisa Hirakata & Nao Sudo & Kozo Ueda, 2013. "Is the net worth of financial intermediaries more important than that of non-financial firms?," Globalization Institute Working Papers 161, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    16. Roberto Motto & Massimo Rostagno & Lawrence J. Christiano, 2010. "Financial Factors in Economic Fluctuations," 2010 Meeting Papers 141, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    17. Mr. Fabian Valencia & Mr. Damiano Sandri, 2012. "Balance-Sheet Shocks and Recapitalizations," IMF Working Papers 2012/068, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Nakashima, Kiyotaka, 2016. "An econometric evaluation of bank recapitalization programs with bank- and loan-level data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-24.
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    20. Fabio Verona & Manuel M. F. Martins & Inês Drumond, 2014. "Financial Shocks and Optimal Monetary Policy Rules," CEF.UP Working Papers 1402, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    21. Kollintzas, Tryphon & Tsoukalas, Konstantinos, 2015. "Bank and Sovereign Risk Interdependence in the Euro Area," CEPR Discussion Papers 10485, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    23. Yasin Mimir & Enes Sunel, 2015. "External shocks, banks and optimal monetary policy in an open economy," BIS Working Papers 528, Bank for International Settlements.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial Accelerators; Spread-adjusted Taylor rule; Capital Injection;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • F52 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - National Security; Economic Nationalism

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