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Distribución Espacial de la Pobreza en Chile

  • Claudio Agostini

    ()

    (ILADES-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado)

  • Phillip Brown

    ()

    (Colby College, Waterville, Maine, United States and International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C., United States.)

  • Diana Paola Góngora

    ()

    (ILADES-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado)

Chile ha sido particularmente exitoso en la reducción de la pobreza durante los últimos 20 años, disminuyendo el porcentaje de la población bajo la línea de pobreza de un 38,6% en 1990 a un 13,7% en 2006. Con tasas de pobreza más bajas, el esfuerzo de focalización necesario para el diseño de políticas públicas que permitan reducir aún más o erradicar la pobreza, es mucho mayor y se requiere información más desagregada a nivel geográfico. Los mapas de pobreza pueden cumplir este rol, ya que entregan una descripción detallada de la distribución espacial de la pobreza, lo cual permite adicionalmente estudiar las relaciones entre la pobreza, urbana y rural, y algunas variables socioeconómicas o comportamientos sociales. Sin embargo, estos estudios se ven limitados por la falta de datos suficientemente detallados y desagregados respecto a la pobreza a nivel local. Específicamente, los datos disponibles en las encuestas de ingreso no son representativos a niveles geográficos muy desagregados y, los censos, no tienen información sobre ingresos. En los últimos años ha habido avances importantes en el desarrollo de metodologías que permitan combinar datos de encuestas y de censos para obtener estimadores de pobreza robustos a niveles geográficos más desagregados. En este trabajo, se utiliza este tipo de metodologías para producir estimadores consistentes de pobreza, tanto rural como urbana, a nivel comunal para Chile. Esto abre la posibilidad de investigar en el futuro los determinantes de la pobreza en Chile y el rol que juega la pobreza local, ya que los resultados obtenidos muestran la existencia de un grado importante de variación en la pobreza entre comunas y entre la pobreza comunal urbana y rural.

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Paper provided by Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines in its series ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers with number inv201.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ila:ilades:inv201
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  1. Demombynes, Gabriel & Elbers, Chris & Lanjouw, Jenny & Lanjouw, Peter & Mistiaen, Johan & Ozler, Berk, 2002. "Producing an Improved Geographic Profile of Poverty: Methodology and Evidence from Three Developing Countries," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  2. Chris Elbers & Jean O. Lanjouw & Peter Lanjouw, 2003. "Micro--Level Estimation of Poverty and Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 355-364, January.
  3. Georgina Pizzolitto, 2005. "Poverty and Inequality in Chile: Methodological Issues and a Literature Review," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0020, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  4. Baker, Judy L. & Grosh, Margaret E., 1994. "Poverty reduction through geographic targeting: How well does it work?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(7), pages 983-995, July.
  5. Claudio Agostini & Phillip Brown, 2007. "Desigualdad geográfica en Chile," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines, vol. 22(1), pages 3-33, June.
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