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The Geography and Structure of Global Innovation Networks: A Knowledge Base Perspective


  • Liu, Ju

    () (CIRCLE, Lund University)

  • Chaminade, Cristina

    () (CIRCLE, Lund University)

  • Asheim, Bjørn

    () (CIRCLE, Lund University)


This paper explores the geography and structure of global innovation networks (GINs) of two multinational companies belonging to industries with different knowledge bases. It contributes to existing literature on knowledge bases, by studying both intra-firm and inter-firm GINs. By means of social network analysis based on primary data, we identify two different forms of GINs, namely the globallyorganised model and the locally-organised model. The paper finds that, in addition to influencing the geographic spread of a GIN, the knowledge base also influences the way that a GIN is organised.

Suggested Citation

  • Liu, Ju & Chaminade, Cristina & Asheim, Bjørn, 2012. "The Geography and Structure of Global Innovation Networks: A Knowledge Base Perspective," Papers in Innovation Studies 2013/15, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:lucirc:2013_015

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arie Y Lewin & Silvia Massini & Carine Peeters, 2009. "Why are companies offshoring innovation? The emerging global race for talent," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1406-1406, October.
    2. Brian J. Fifarek & Francisco M. Veloso, 2010. "Offshoring and the global geography of innovation," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 559-578, July.
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    5. Jerker Moodysson & Lars Coenen & Bjørn Asheim, 2008. "Explaining Spatial Patterns of Innovation: Analytical and Synthetic Modes of Knowledge Creation in the Medicon Valley Life-Science Cluster," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 40(5), pages 1040-1056, May.
    6. Martin, Roman & Moodysson , Jerker, 2011. "Comparing knowledge bases: on the organisation and geography of knowledge flows in the regional innovation system of Scania, southern Sweden," Papers in Innovation Studies 2011/2, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    7. Love, James H. & Roper, Stephen, 2001. "Location and network effects on innovation success: evidence for UK, German and Irish manufacturing plants," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 643-661, April.
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    10. Elisa Giuliani, 2007. "The selective nature of knowledge networks in clusters: evidence from the wine industry," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 139-168, March.
    11. M. S. Gertler & Y. M. Levitte, 2005. "Local Nodes in Global Networks: The Geography of Knowledge Flows in Biotechnology Innovation," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 487-507.
    12. John Cantwell & Lucia Piscitello, 2005. "Recent Location of Foreign-owned Research and Development Activities by Large Multinational Corporations in the European Regions: The Role of Spillovers and Externalities," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 1-16.
    13. Asheim, Bjorn T. & Coenen, Lars, 2005. "Knowledge bases and regional innovation systems: Comparing Nordic clusters," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1173-1190, October.
    14. Zanfei, Antonello, 2000. "Transnational Firms and the Changing Organisation of Innovative Activities," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(5), pages 515-542, September.
    15. Schön, Lennart & Kander, Astrid, 2007. "Industrial dynamics and innovative pressure on energy - Sweden with European and Global outlooks," Papers in Innovation Studies 2007/5, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pina, Katia & Tether, Bruce S., 2016. "Towards understanding variety in knowledge intensive business services by distinguishing their knowledge bases," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 401-413.
    2. repec:rnp:ecopol:ep1763 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Klein, Malte & Sauer, Andreas, 2016. "Celebrating 30 years of innovation system research: What you need to know about innovation systems," Hohenheim Discussion Papers in Business, Economics and Social Sciences 17-2016, University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Sciences.
    4. Liu, Ju, 2015. "A Case Study on Multinational Companies’ Global Innovation Networks and Global Production Networks: Toward a Theoretical Conceptualisation," Papers in Innovation Studies 2015/45, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    5. Liu, Ju & Chaminade, Cristina, 2014. "Exploring the interplay, differences, and commonalities between global production networks and global innovation networks of two multinational companies," Papers in Innovation Studies 2014/7, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    6. Lu, Ren & Ruan, Min & Reve, Torger, 2016. "Cluster and co-located cluster effects: An empirical study of six Chinese city regions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 1984-1995.
    7. Herrmann, Johannes & Hjertström, Alexander & Avdeitchikova, Sofia, 2015. "The Influence of Functional and Relational Proximities on Business Angel Investments," Ratio Working Papers 253, The Ratio Institute.
    8. Rune Dahl Fitjar & Bram Timmermans, 2017. "Knowledge bases and relatedness: A study of labour mobility in Norwegian regions," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1712, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jun 2017.
    9. Chaminade , Cristina & Plechero , Monica, 2015. "The role of geographical proximity in the international knowledge flows of European firms: an overview of different knowledge transfer mechanisms," Papers in Innovation Studies 2015/30, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    10. Sidonia von Proff & Matthias Duschl & Thomas Brenner, 2017. "Motives behind the mobility of university graduates – A study of three German universities," Review of Regional Research: Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, Springer;Gesellschaft für Regionalforschung (GfR), vol. 37(1), pages 39-58, February.
    11. Charlie Karlsson & Börje Johansson & Kiyoshi Kobayashi & Roger R. Stough, 2014. "Knowledge, innovation and space: introduction," Chapters,in: Knowledge, Innovation and Space, chapter 1, pages 1-26 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Karlsson, Charlie & Johansson, Börje & Kobayashi, Kiyoshi & Stough, Roger R., 2014. "Knowledge, innovation and space," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 367, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    13. Sidonia von Proff & Matthias Duschl & Thomas Brenner, 2014. "Motives behind the mobility of university graduates – A study of three German universities," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2014-08, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.

    More about this item


    global innovation network; multinational companies; knowledge base; structure; geography; social network analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

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