IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hhb/cbsint/1999-006.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Foreign Operation Mode Combinations and Internationalization

Author

Listed:
  • Petersen, Bent

    (Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School)

  • Welch, Lawrence S.

    (Norwegian School of Management)

Abstract

The standard formula in theoretical and empirical studies of entry mode choice and internationalization processes of firms has been ‘one foreign country, one operation mode’, i.e. a singular mode approach. However, even with fairly broad operation mode definitions it is by no means exceptional to see firms having more than one operation mode in a foreign country. This paper explores the phenomenon of ‘multiple’, ‘mixed’, or ‘combined’ foreign operation modes. Although several occurrences of mode combinations are reported in the IB literature, the phenomenon has not yet been made the subject of direct analysis. The paper introduces a classification of multiple mode appearances based on the degree of interaction between operation modes (which vary considerably). Special attention is paid to ‘mode packages’, i.e. the concerted use of several operation modes in an integrated, complementary way. In a study of Danish MNCs with simultaneous use of subsidiaries and independent local intermediaries it was found that in most cases the two modes are operating in a complementary way. A framework for analyzing the roles within packages is presented and it is argued that the use of ‘mode packages’ may offer the multinational firm scope for improved international market penetration capacity.

Suggested Citation

  • Petersen, Bent & Welch, Lawrence S., 1999. "Foreign Operation Mode Combinations and Internationalization," Working Papers 6-1999, Copenhagen Business School, Department of International Economics and Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhb:cbsint:1999-006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://openarchive.cbs.dk/cbsweb/handle/10398/6530
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Clark, Timothy & Pugh, Derek S. & Mallory, Geoff, 1997. "The process of internationalization in the operating firm," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(6), pages 605-623, December.
    2. Dutta, Shantanu, et al, 1995. "Understanding Dual Distribution: The Case of Reps and House Accounts," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 189-204, April.
    3. Brickley, James A. & Dark, Frederick H., 1987. "The choice of organizational form The case of franchising," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 401-420, June.
    4. Benito, Gabriel R. G. & Pedersen, Torben & Petersen, Bent, 1999. "Foreign operation methods and switching costs: conceptual issues and possible effects," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 213-229, June.
    5. Petersen, Bent & Welch, Lawrence S., 1999. "International Retailing Operations: Downstream Entry and Expansion via Franchising," Working Papers 5-1999, Copenhagen Business School, Department of International Economics and Management.
    6. Calof, Jonathan L., 1993. "The mode choice and change decision process and its impact on international performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 97-120.
    7. Sanjeev Agarwal & Sridhar N Ramaswami, 1992. "Choice of Foreign Market Entry Mode: Impact of Ownership, Location and Internationalization Factors," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(1), pages 1-27, March.
    8. Pedersen, Torben & Petersen, Bent, 1998. "Explaining gradually increasing resource commitment to a foreign market," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 483-501, October.
    9. Cavusgil, S. Tamer & Yaprak, Attila & Yeoh, Poh-Lin, 1993. "A decision-making framework for global sourcing," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 143-156.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhb:cbsint:1999-006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lars Nondal). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/iicbsdk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.