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A Human Development Index by Internal Migration Status

  • Kenneth Harttgen


    (University of Goettingen, Department of Economics)

  • Stephan Klasen


    (University of Goettingen, Department of Economics)

Migration continues to be a very important income diversification strategy, especially for poor populations in developing countries. However, while there has been much analysis on the economic consequences of migration for migrants and the receiving regions, whether internal migration improves or deteriorates human development is not easy to determine. This papers applies a recently development analytical framework that allows to calculate the HDI for subgroups of a population. We use this approach to calculate the HDI by internal migrational status to assess the differences between the levels of human development of internal migrants compared to non-migrants, and also across countries as well as by urban and rural areas. An empirical illustration for a sample of 16 low and middle income countries shows that, overall, internal migrants slightly achieve a higher level of human development than non-migrants. The results also show that differences in income between migrants and non-migrants are generally higher than differences in education and life-expectancy. Disaggregating the analysis by urban and rural areas reveals that urban internal migrants are better o® than urban non-migrants and rural migrants are better off than rural non-migrants.

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Paper provided by Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in its series Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) with number HDRP-2009-54.

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Length: 68 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2009
Date of revision: Oct 2009
Publication status: Published as background research for the 2009 Human Development Report.
Handle: RePEc:hdr:papers:hdrp-2009-54
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  1. Angus Deaton, 2005. "Measuring Poverty in a Growing World (or Measuring Growth in a Poor World)," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 1-19, February.
  2. Michael Grimm & Kenneth Harttgen & Stephan Klasen & Mark Misselhorn, 2007. "A Human Development Index by Income Groups," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 155, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  3. Ravallion, Martin, 1997. "Good and bad growth: The human development reports," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 631-638, May.
  4. Kiros, Gebre-Egzbiabher & White, Michael J., 2004. "Migration, community context, and child immunization in Ethiopia," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 59(12), pages 2603-2616, December.
  5. Michaelowa, Katharina, 2001. "Primary Education Quality in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of Learning Achievement and Efficiency Considerations," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1699-1716, October.
  6. Sagar, Ambuj D. & Najam, Adil, 1998. "The human development index: a critical review," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 249-264, June.
  7. Martin Brockerhoff, 1990. "Rural-to-Urban migration and child survival in Senegal," Demography, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 601-616, November.
  8. Brockerhoff, Martin, 1995. "Child survival in big cities: The disadvantages of migrants," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1371-1383, May.
  9. Angus Deaton, 2005. "ERRATUM: Measuring Poverty in a Growing World (or Measuring Growth in a Poor World)," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 395-395, May.
  10. Kenneth Harttgen & Stephan Klasen, 2009. "Well-being of Migrant Children and Migrant Youth in Europe," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 181, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  11. Gustav Ranis, Frances Stewart and Emma Samman, . "Human Development: beyond the HDI," QEH Working Papers qehwps135, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  12. Deon Filmer & Lant Pritchett, 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 25(1), pages 85-120.
  13. Srinivasan, T N, 1994. "Human Development: A New Paradigm or Reinvention of the Wheel?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 238-43, May.
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