Job decentralization and transportation use in a monocentric city
Our objective in this paper is twofold: first, we want to give a theoretical founding to empirical findings of several works that emphasize the fact that while distance traveled increases with household location distance from the city center, transportation time tends to decrease, thus offering a strong incentive to sprawl. Second, we want to analyze the impact of job dispersal on city size, overall distance traveled and transportation cost, along with other urban variables, and spatial equity. We therefore develop an extended monocentric model of city taking into account employment dispersal and varying unit commuting costs. Using this model, we show that under specific conditions including employment dispersal and high marginal transportation cost around city center, the distance traveled by households from home to workplace increases with their distance from the city center, while private transportation costs they endure decrease. Then, based on a surplus analysis, we show that city size moderately increases with the level of employment dispersal, while overall home-to-work distance traveled decreases, suggesting that job decentralization might entail savings in social costs of transportation. However, our findings show that such dispersal could entail spatial inequity: the households living near the city center could suffer a welfare loss.
|Date of creation:||01 Nov 2011|
|Note:||View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637406|
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References listed on IDEAS
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- McMillen, Daniel P. & Singell, Larry Jr., 1992. "Work location, residence location, and the intraurban wage gradient," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 195-213, September.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001.
"Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1912, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
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- McMillen, Daniel P. & McDonald, John F., 1998. "Suburban Subcenters and Employment Density in Metropolitan Chicago," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 157-180, March.
- Genevieve Giuliano & Kenneth A. Small, 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 30(9), pages 1485-1500, November.
- Giuliano, Genevieve & Small, Kenneth A., 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2ss7x5b1, University of California Transportation Center.
- Eberts, Randall W., 1981. "An empirical investigation of intraurban wage gradients," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 50-60, July.
- Wheaton, William C., 1974. "A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 223-237, October.
- Michel De Lara & André De Palma & Moez Kilani & Serge Piperno, 2008. "Congestion pricing and long term urban form: Application to Ile-de-France," Working Papers hal-00348439, HAL.
- White, Michelle J., 1988. "Location choice and commuting behavior in cities with decentralized employment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 129-152, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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