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Job decentralization and transportation use in a monocentric city

  • Vincent Breteau

    ()

    (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - Université Paris-Est - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - IFSTTAR, CGDD - Commissariat Général au Développement Durable - Ministère de l'Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports et du Logement)

  • Fabien Leurent

    ()

    (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - Université Paris-Est - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - IFSTTAR)

Registered author(s):

    Our objective in this paper is twofold: first, we want to give a theoretical founding to empirical findings of several works that emphasize the fact that while distance traveled increases with household location distance from the city center, transportation time tends to decrease, thus offering a strong incentive to sprawl. Second, we want to analyze the impact of job dispersal on city size, overall distance traveled and transportation cost, along with other urban variables, and spatial equity. We therefore develop an extended monocentric model of city taking into account employment dispersal and varying unit commuting costs. Using this model, we show that under specific conditions including employment dispersal and high marginal transportation cost around city center, the distance traveled by households from home to workplace increases with their distance from the city center, while private transportation costs they endure decrease. Then, based on a surplus analysis, we show that city size moderately increases with the level of employment dispersal, while overall home-to-work distance traveled decreases, suggesting that job decentralization might entail savings in social costs of transportation. However, our findings show that such dispersal could entail spatial inequity: the households living near the city center could suffer a welfare loss.

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    File URL: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/63/74/06/PDF/Job_Dencentralization_and_Transportation_Use_-_VB_FL.pdf
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    Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number hal-00637406.

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    Date of creation: 01 Nov 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00637406
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00637406/en/
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    1. Michel De Lara & André De Palma & Moez Kilani & Serge Piperno, 2008. "Congestion pricing and long term urban form: Application to Ile-de-France," Working Papers hal-00348439, HAL.
    2. Eberts, Randall W., 1981. "An empirical investigation of intraurban wage gradients," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 50-60, July.
    3. McMillen, Daniel P. & McDonald, John F., 1998. "Suburban Subcenters and Employment Density in Metropolitan Chicago," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 157-180, March.
    4. Giuliano, Genevieve & Small, Kenneth A., 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2ss7x5b1, University of California Transportation Center.
    5. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001. "Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1912, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    6. Marcy Burchfield & Henry G. Overman & Diego Puga & Matthew A. Turner, 2005. "Causes of sprawl: A portrait from space," Working Papers tecipa-192, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    7. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521681599 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Wheaton, William C., 1974. "A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 223-237, October.
    9. McMillen, Daniel P. & Singell, Larry Jr., 1992. "Work location, residence location, and the intraurban wage gradient," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 195-213, September.
    10. White, Michelle J., 1988. "Location choice and commuting behavior in cities with decentralized employment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 129-152, September.
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