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Is electricity affordable and reliable for all in Vietnam?

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  • Minh Ha-Duong

    () (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech)

  • Hoai Son Nguyen

    () (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech)

Abstract

Access to clean and affordable energy for all is the seventh sustainable development goal. This manuscript examines the state of access to electricity for all in Vietnam, based on national households' surveys conducted in the time period 2008-2014. We find that in Vietnam, the problem of providing access to clean energy for all is largely solved for now: the fraction of households without access to electricity is below two percent, the median level of electricity usage in 2014 was 100 kWh per month per household, the fraction of households declaring unsatisfied electricity needs is below three percent. We find that electricity is becoming a heavier burden in Vietnamese households' finances. In 2010, the electricity bill exceeded 6% of income for 2.4% of households, but in 2014 that number reached 5.5% of households. In practical terms, we discuss the challenge of a socially just increase of electricity tariff, necessary to finance a clean development of energy system. Our theoretical contribution to debates on energy poverty is to account for the human dimension by using a self-reported satisfaction indicator. Our study shows that subjective energy poverty indicators –designed from surveys asking people if they had enough electricity to meet their households needs– are as relevant as objective indicators –from engineering or economic data. While objectivity is laudable, development is not only about technology and money: measuring human satisfaction matters.

Suggested Citation

  • Minh Ha-Duong & Hoai Son Nguyen, 2018. "Is electricity affordable and reliable for all in Vietnam?," CIRED Working Papers hal-01692453, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:ciredw:hal-01692453
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01692453
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. He, Xiaoping & Reiner, David, 2016. "Electricity demand and basic needs: Empirical evidence from China's households," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 212-221.
    2. Kang Li & Su-Yan Pan & Yi-Ming Wei, 2015. "A bibliometric analysis of energy poverty research: results from SCI-E/SSCI databases," International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 38(4/5/6), pages 357-372.
    3. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Mukherjee, Ishani & Drupady, Ira Martina & D’Agostino, Anthony L., 2011. "Evaluating energy security performance from 1990 to 2010 for eighteen countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 5846-5853.
    4. Pachauri, S. & Mueller, A. & Kemmler, A. & Spreng, D., 2004. "On Measuring Energy Poverty in Indian Households," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2083-2104, December.
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    Keywords

    Electricity; Vietnam; Sustainable Development Goals; Indicators;

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