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Chapter X: The Tour de France: a success story in spite of competitive imbalance and doping


  • Wladimir Andreff

    () (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)


The chapter goes as follows. In the first section it is demonstrated how the Tour de France is a high quality product. This is a result from its accurate design, its management, its economic model and its finance structure, both in comparison to other mega-sporting events and with reference to tournament theory. It is not easy to assess the competitive balance in the Tour de France since, as was demonstrated in chapter 10, it is at the same time an individual and a team sport contest. After reviewing some results published in literature so far, a new metrics for evaluating competitive balanced in the Tour de France is presented in section 2. Finally, the Tour de France cannot ignore doping as a potential threat to fan attendance and TV viewing. We therefore discuss the issue of doping and a new procedure to deal with doping in section 3.

Suggested Citation

  • Wladimir Andreff, 2016. "Chapter X: The Tour de France: a success story in spite of competitive imbalance and doping," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01279855, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-01279855
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Walter C. Neale, 1964. "The Peculiar Economics of Professional Sports," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 78(1), pages 1-14.
    2. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," NBER Chapters,in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Nicky Rogge & Daam Van Reeth & Tom Van Puyenbroeck, 2013. "Performance Evaluation of Tour de France Cycling Teams Using Data Envelopment Analysis," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 8(3), pages 236-257, August.
    4. Luca Rebeggiani & Davide Tondani, 2008. "Organizational Forms in Professional Cycling: An Examination of the Efficiency of the UCI Pro Tour," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 3(1), pages 19-41, February.
    5. Simon Rottenberg, 1956. "The Baseball Players' Labor Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 242-242.
    6. Daniel A. Rascher & John Paul G. Solmes, 2007. "Do Fans Want Close Contests? A Test of the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis in the National Basketball Association," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 2(3), pages 130-141, August.
    7. Rosen, Sherwin, 1986. "Prizes and Incentives in Elimination Tournaments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 701-715, September.
    8. Nicolas EBER & Jacques THÉPOT, 1999. "Doping in Sport and Competition Design," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 1999044, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    9. Loek Groot, 2008. "Economics, Uncertainty and European Football," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12924.
    10. Wolfgang Maennig, 2002. "On the Economics of Doping and Corruption in International Sports," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(1), pages 61-89, February.
    11. Wladimir Andreff & Paul Staudohar, 2000. "The Evolving European Model of Professional Sports Finance," Post-Print halshs-00274661, HAL.
    12. Daam Van Reeth, 2013. "TV Demand for the Tour de France: The Importance of Stage Characteristics versus Outcome Uncertainty, Patriotism, and Doping," International Journal of Sport Finance, Fitness Information Technology, vol. 8(1), pages 39-60, February.
    13. Berentsen, Aleksander, 2002. "The economics of doping," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 109-127, March.
    14. Wladimir Andreff & Paul D. Staudohar, 2000. "The Evolving European Model of Professional Sports Finance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 1(3), pages 257-276, August.
    15. Bird, Edward J. & Wagner, Gert G., 1997. "Sport as a Common Property Resource: A Solution to the Dilemmas of Doping," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 749-766.
    16. Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
    17. Wladimir Andreff, 1985. "Le muscle et la machine: le dialogue entre le sport et l'innovation," Post-Print halshs-00286154, HAL.
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    economics of sport; professional cycling; Tour de France; doping; competitive balance;

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