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Income sources of malnourished people in rural areas: Microlevel information and policy implications

Author

Listed:
  • von Braun, Joachim
  • Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

Abstract

"This research is stimulated by the preliminary insight that rural households, even if they are poor and/or located in so-called subsistence-oriented regions, are dependent on a variety of farm, nonfarm, and nonagricultural income sources. The scale and nature of these income sources and their relationship to the major economic sectors (agriculture, rural manufacturing, and services), through backward and forward linkages, need to be better understood for priority setting in development policy. The objectives of this study are threefold: 1) to identify employment and income sources of rural households of different socioeconomic characteristics in regions and countries at different stages of agricultural transformation and development; 2) to trace income and employment strategies (as revealed by these) of rural households, and, thus, to broaden the information base for policy priorities for integration of the poor into a sustainable growth and development process. 3) to look into distributions below and above the poverty line in order to identify relevant differences in demographic, income, and employment characteristics of poor and nonpoor rural households and, thereby, assess the scope for "targeting" income sources of the poor as a poverty alleviation strategy. Poverty is essentially, but not always, a matter of low incomes, where the cost of acquiring a certain commodity bundle determines the income- or expenditure-based poverty line. An income-based indicator is an indirect means of measuring poverty. In this study, poverty is measured directly through consumption, given certain commodity characteristics and behaviors, rather than in directly through incomes. A central and fundamental characteristic of absolute poverty is insufficient food consumption for an active and healthy life. The poverty line (cutoff point) is defined here by calorie consumption being 80 percent of the recommended consumption for an active and healthy life." from authors' abstract

Suggested Citation

  • von Braun, Joachim & Pandya-Lorch, Rajul, 1991. "Income sources of malnourished people in rural areas: Microlevel information and policy implications," IFPRI working papers 5, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprwp:5
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tilman Brück, 2003. "Coping Strategies in Post-War Rural Mozambique," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 384, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    2. Reardon, Thomas, 1997. "Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 735-747, May.
    3. Cornilius Chikwama, 2004. "Rural Off-Farm Employment and Farm Investment: An Analytical Framework and Evidence from Zimbabwe," CERT Discussion Papers 0403, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
    4. Adams, Richard H, Jr & Alderman, Harold, 1992. "Sources of Income Inequality in Rural Pakistan: A Decomposition Analysis," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(4), pages 591-608, November.
    5. Meenakshi Rajeev & Manojit Bhattacharjee, 2017. "Augmenting Small Farmers Income Through Rural Non-Farm Sector: Role of Information and Institutions," Working Papers id:12084, eSocialSciences.
    6. Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta, 2012. "Livelihood Strategies in Rural South Africa: Implications for Poverty Reduction," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 125411, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Oluwatayo, I.B., 2004. "Income Risk and Welfare Status of Rural Households in Nigeria: Ekiti State as a Test Case," WIDER Working Paper Series 061, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Richard H. Adams, JR., 1993. "Non-farm Income and Inequality in Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 1187-1198.
    9. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 2002. "Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Land in Rural Egypt," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(2), pages 339-363, January.
    10. Balisacan, Arsenio M., 1991. "Linkages, Poverty and Income Distribution," Working Papers WP 1991-15, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    11. Barrett, Christopher B. & Reardon, Thomas, 2000. "Asset, Activity, And Income Diversification Among African Agriculturalists: Some Practical Issues," Working Papers 14734, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    12. Unknown, 1992. "The Determinants of Household Income and Consumption in Rural Nampula Province: Implications for Food Security and Agricultural Policy Reform," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 55994, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    13. Pham, Hung T, 2006. "Rural Nonfarm Employment Under Trade Reform Evidence From Vietnam, 1993-2002," MPRA Paper 6476, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Cornilius Chikawama, 2004. "Quota Rural Off-Farm Employment and Farm Investment: An Analytical Framework and Evidence from Zimbabwe," Working Papers E04, Department of Economics, School of Management and Languages, Heriot Watt University.
    15. Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1993. "Poverty, household food security, and nutrition in rural Pakistan:," Research reports 96, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    16. Frank Ellis, 1998. "Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 1-38.
    17. Barrett, C. B. & Reardon, T. & Webb, P., 2001. "Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 315-331, August.

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