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Policy options for increasing crop productivity and reducing soil nutrient depletion and poverty in Uganda:

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  • Nkonya, Ephraim M.
  • Pender, John
  • Kaizzi, Crammer
  • Edward, Kato
  • Mugarura, Samuel

Abstract

"This study was conducted with the main objective of determining the linkages between poverty and land management practices in Uganda. The study used the 2002/03 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS) and more focused data collected from a sub-sample of 851 households of the 2002/03 UNHS sample households. We found that farmers in Uganda deplete about 1.2 percent of the nutrient stock stored in the topsoil per year, which leads to a predicted 0.31 percent reduction in crop productivity. The value of replacing the depleted nutrients using the cheapest inorganic fertilizers is equivalent to about 20 percent of household income obtained from agricultural production. Econometric analysis of the survey results provides evidence of linkages between poverty and land management practices. Land investments increase agricultural productivity and income and conserve natural resources. Many inputs and land management practices increase crop production per acre. We observed an inverse farm size – crop productivity relationship but a negative association of farm size and per capita income. Education of female household members has generally a limited impact on land management, while male education is associated with greater use of inorganic fertilizer. Both female post-secondary and male primary and secondary education are associated with higher crop productivity. Larger families use more erosive practices but realize higher value of crop production per acre but have lower per capita income. Access to financial capital, markets and roads has limited effect on land management. However, access to financial capital and non-farm opportunities increase crop productivity and per capita household income and access to roads contributes to higher per capita household income and less soil nutrient depletion. These results support the Uganda government poverty reduction strategy through building rural roads, and increasing access to financial capital and non-farm opportunities. Both the traditional and the new agricultural extension program increase use of fertilizer and crop productivity, suggesting that investment in extension services could significantly contribute to agricultural modernization and poverty reduction. The results suggest the need to give incentives for technical assistance programs to operate in remote areas, where access to extension services is limited. Perennial crop producers deplete soil nutrients more rapidly, implying the need to promote measures to restore soil nutrients in perennial (especially banana) production areas. We find no significant differences in crop productivity or income per capita associated with differences in land tenure systems. Our findings suggest that customary land tenure, which is the most common form of tenure, is not a constraint to improvements in land productivity or use of sustainable land management. Overall, our results provide general support for the hypothesis that promotion of poverty reduction and agricultural modernization through technical assistance programs and investments in infrastructure and education can improve agricultural productivity and help reduce poverty. However, they also show that some of these investments do not necessarily reduce land degradation, and may contribute to worsening land degradation in the near term. Thus, investing in poverty reduction and agricultural modernization is not sufficient to address the problem of land degradation in Uganda, and must be complemented by greater efforts to address this problem." Authors' Abstract

Suggested Citation

  • Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Pender, John & Kaizzi, Crammer & Edward, Kato & Mugarura, Samuel, 2005. "Policy options for increasing crop productivity and reducing soil nutrient depletion and poverty in Uganda:," EPTD discussion papers 134, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:eptddp:134
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sharma, Manohar, 2000. "Microfinance," MP05 briefs 0, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    Cited by:

    1. Nkegbe, Paul K. & Shankar, Bhavani & Ceddia, M. Graziano, 2011. "Smallholder Adoption of Soil and Water Conservation Practices in Northern Ghana," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114608, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Pender, John L. & Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Kato, Edward & Kaizzi, Crammer & Ssali, Henry, 2009. "Impacts of Cash Crop Production on Land Management and Land Degradation: The Case of Coffee and Cotton in Uganda," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 50760, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Komarek, Adam M. & Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z., 2006. "An Economic Analysis of Ugandan Agricultural Constraints," 2006 Conference (50th), February 8-10, 2006, Sydney, Australia 139796, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    4. Falck Zepeda, José & Barreto-Triana, Nancy & Baquero-Haeberlin, Irma & Espitia-Malagón, Eduardo & Fierro-Guzmán, Humberto & López, Nancy, 2006. "An exploration of the potential benefits of integrated pest management systems and the use of insect resistant potatoes to control the Guatemalan Tuber Moth (Tecia solanivora Povolny) in Ventaquemada,," EPTD discussion papers 152, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Linacre, Nicholas & Falck-Zepeda, José & Komen, John & MacLaren, Donald, 2006. "Risk assessment and management of genetically modified organisms under Australia's Gene Technology Act:," EPTD discussion papers 157, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Tomoya Matsumoto, 2013. "Disseminating New Farming Practices among Small Scale Farmers: An Experimental Intervention in Uganda," NBER Chapters,in: Experiments for Development: Achievements and New Directions National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Benin, Samuel & Place, Frank & Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Pender, John L., 2006. "Land Markets and Agricultural Land Use Efficiency and Sustainability: Evidence from East Africa," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25645, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    8. Nkonya, Ephraim & Gicheru, Patrick & Woelcke, Johannes & Okoba, Barrack & Kilambya, Daniel & Gachimbi, Louis N., 2008. "On-site and off-Site long-term economic impacts of soil fertility management practices: The case of maize-based cropping systems in Kenya," IFPRI discussion papers 778, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Benin, Sam & Mugarura, Samuel, 2006. "Determinants of change in household-level consumption and poverty in Uganda, 1992/93-1999/00:," DSGD discussion papers 27, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Birungi, Patrick & Hassan, Rashid M., 2007. "Impact of Alternative Land Management Options on Soil Fertility and Erosion in Uganda," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 0(Issue 3), pages 1-15, September.
    11. Wairegi, L.W.I. & van Asten, P.J.A., 2010. "The agronomic and economic benefits of fertilizer and mulch use in highland banana systems in Uganda," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 103(8), pages 543-550, October.
    12. Nkonya, Ephraim M. & Gicheru, Patrick & Woelcke, Johannes & Okoba, Barrack & Kilambya, Daniel & Gachimbi, Louis, 2006. "Out of Site out of Mind: Quantifying the Long-term Off-site economic Impacts of Land Degradation in Kenya," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21344, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    13. Birner, Regina & Davis, Kristin & Pender, John & Nkonya, Ephraim & Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah & Ekboir, Javier & Mbabu, Adiel & Spielman, David & Horna, Daniela & Benin, Samuel & Cohen, Marc J., 2006. "From "best practice" to "best fit": a framework for designing and analyzing pluralistic agricultural advisory services worldwide," FCND discussion papers 210, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    14. Paul J. Block & Kenneth Strzepek & Mark W. Rosegrant & Xinshen Diao, 2008. "Impacts of considering climate variability on investment decisions in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 39(2), pages 171-181, September.
    15. Birungi, Patrick & Hassan, Rashid M., 2010. "Poverty, property rights and land management in Uganda," Journal of Cooperatives, NCERA-210, vol. 4(1), March.
    16. Tatwangire, Alex & Holden, Stein T., 2011. "Welfare Effects of Market Friendly Land Reforms in Uganda," CLTS Working Papers 2/11, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Land Tenure Studies.
    17. Diiro, Gracious M. & Ker, Alan P. & San, Abdul G., 2015. "The role of gender in fertiliser adoption in Uganda," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-14.
    18. Gruère, Guillaume & Giuliani, Alessandra & Smale, Melinda, 2006. "Marketing underutilized plant species for the benefit of the poor: a conceptual framework," EPTD discussion papers 154, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    19. Di Falco, Salvatore & Chavas, Jean-Paul & Smale, Melinda, 2006. "Farmer management of production risk on degraded lands: the role of wheat genetic diversity in Tigray Region, Ethiopia," EPTD discussion papers 153, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    20. World Bank, 2008. "Uganda Sustainable Land Management : Public Expenditure Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16807, The World Bank.
    21. Gruère, Guillaume P., 2006. "An analysis of trade related international regulations of genetically modified food and their effects on developing countries:," EPTD discussion papers 147, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    22. Place, Frank, 2009. "Land Tenure and Agricultural Productivity in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Economics Literature and Recent Policy Strategies and Reforms," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1326-1336, August.
    23. Smale, Melinda & Zambrano, Patricia & Falck-Zepeda, José & Gruère, Guillaume, 2006. "Parables: applied economics literature about the impact of genetically engineered crop varieties in developing economies," EPTD discussion papers 158, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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