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Liquidity risk, credit risk, and the Federal Reserve's responses to the crisis

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  • Asani Sarkar

Abstract

In responding to the severity and broad scope of the financial crisis that began in 2007, the Federal Reserve has made aggressive use of both traditional monetary policy instruments and innovative tools in an effort to provide liquidity. In this paper, I examine the Fed's actions in light of the underlying financial amplification mechanisms propagating the crisis--in particular, balance sheet constraints and counterparty credit risk. The empirical evidence supports the Fed's views on the primacy of balance sheet constraints in the earlier stages of the crisis and the increased prominence of counterparty credit risk as the crisis evolved in 2008. I conclude that an understanding of the prevailing risk environment is necessary in order to evaluate when central bank programs are likely to be effective and under what conditions the programs might cease to be necessary.

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  • Asani Sarkar, 2009. "Liquidity risk, credit risk, and the Federal Reserve's responses to the crisis," Staff Reports 389, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:389
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    Cited by:

    1. Cúrdia, Vasco & Woodford, Michael, 2011. "The central-bank balance sheet as an instrument of monetarypolicy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, pages 54-79.
    2. Guidolin, Massimo & Tam, Yu Man, 2013. "A yield spread perspective on the great financial crisis: Break-point test evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 18-39.
    3. Fratzscher, Marcel & Lo Duca, Marco & Straub, Roland, 2012. "A global monetary tsunami? On the spillovers of US Quantitative Easing," CEPR Discussion Papers 9195, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Fratzscher, Marcel & Straub, Roland & Lo Duca, Marco, 2013. "On the international spillovers of US quantitative easing," Working Paper Series 1557, European Central Bank.
    5. Contessi, Silvio & De Pace, Pierangelo & Guidolin, Massimo, 2014. "How did the financial crisis alter the correlations of U.S. yield spreads?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 362-385.
    6. Clara Machado & Carlos León & Miguel Sarmiento & Freddy Cepeda, 2011. "Riesgo Sistémico Y Estabilidad Del Sistema De Pagos De Alto Valor En Colombia: Análisis Bajo Topología De Redes Y Simulación De Pagos," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 29(65), pages 106-175, June.
    7. Beaupain, Renaud & Durré, Alain, 2013. "Central bank reserves and interbank market liquidity in the euro area," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 259-284.
    8. James Felkerson, 2012. "Fiddling in Euroland as the Global Meltdown Nears," Economics Public Policy Brief Archive ppb_123, Levy Economics Institute.
    9. Yang, Hsin-Feng & Liu, Chih-Liang & Chou, Ray Yeutien, 2014. "Interest rate risk propagation: Evidence from the credit crunch," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 242-264.
    10. James Felkerson, 2011. "$29,000,000,000,000: A Detailed Look at the Fed's Bailout by Funding Facility and Recipient," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_698, Levy Economics Institute.
    11. Dalia S Hakura & Ralph Chami & Thomas F. Cosimano & Adolfo Barajas, 2010. "U.S. Bank Behavior in the Wake of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 10/131, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Ji, Philip Inyeob, 2012. "Time-varying financial stress linkages: Evidence from the LIBOR-OIS spreads," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 647-657.
    13. Yi Wang, 2010. "Convertibility Restriction Determination in China's Foreign Exchange Market and its Impact of Forward Pricing," Discussion Papers 09-024, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
    14. Andre Guettler & Ulrich Hommel & Julia Reichert, 2011. "The influence of sponsor, servicer, and underwriter characteristics on RMBS performance," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 25(3), pages 281-311, September.
    15. Cui, Jin & In, Francis & Maharaj, Elizabeth Ann, 2016. "What drives the Libor–OIS spread? Evidence from five major currency Libor–OIS spreads," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 358-375.

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    Keywords

    Credit ; Liquidity (Economics) ; Risk ; Federal Reserve Bank of New York ; Bank supervision;

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