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Endogenous realignments and the sustainability of a target

  • Dean Corbae
  • Chris Neely
  • Paul Weller

We examine the effects of endogenously determined realignment expectations in a model of a target zone with sluggish price adjustment. We allow these expectations to be based on a policy rule that generates an increasing probability of realignment as output moves away from full employment. We find that for realistic parameter values, even relatively small misalignments of the currency band lead to strongly skewed conditional distributions for the nominal exchange rate, thus generating pressures for realignment. We show that the reason for this is that the speed of adjustment in the absence of realignments is rather slow. Further, we find that the existence of an equilibrium path for the exchange rate depends on the responsiveness of realignment expectations to economic fundamentals. Paradoxically, higher credibility may increase the probability that a target zone will collapse. This feature of the model provides a possible explanation for the crisis within the exchange rate mechanism of the EMS. A policy of monetary accommodation to real shocks can alleviate the problem but severely constrains a country?s ability to pursue counterinflationary measures within the band.

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Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its series Working Papers with number 1994-009.

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Date of creation: 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlwp:1994-009
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  1. Krugman, Paul R, 1991. "Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(3), pages 669-82, August.
  2. Jordi Galí & Richard Clarida, 1993. "Sources of real exchage rate fluctuations: How important are nominal shocks?," Economics Working Papers 66, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jan 1994.
  3. Maurice Obstfeld, 1995. "Models of Currency Crises with Self-Fulfilling Features," NBER Working Papers 5285, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Rose, Andrew K. & Svensson, Lars E. O., 1994. "European exchange rate credibility before the fall," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1185-1216, June.
  5. Miller, Marcus & Weller, Paul, 1990. "Exchange Rate Bands with Price Inertia," CEPR Discussion Papers 421, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Bertola, Giuseppe & Caballero, Ricardo J, 1992. "Target Zones and Realignments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 520-36, June.
  7. Miller, Marcus & Weller, Paul, 1989. "Exchange Rate Bands and Realignments in a Stationary Stochastic Setting," CEPR Discussion Papers 299, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Bertola, Giuseppe & Svensson, Lars E O, 1991. "Stochastic Devaluation Risk and the Empirical Fit of Target Zone Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 513, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Kenneth A. Froot & Kenneth Rogoff, 1991. "The EMS, the EMU, and the Transition to a Common Currency," NBER Working Papers 3684, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Miller, Marcus & Weller, Paul, 1995. "Stochastic saddlepoint systems Stabilization policy and the stock market," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 279-302.
  11. Edin, P.A. & Vredin, A., 1991. "Devaluation Risk in Target Zones: Evidence from the Nordic Countries," Papers 1991g, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  12. Ghosh, Atish R & Masson, Paul R, 1991. "Model Uncertainty, Learning, and the Gains from Coordination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 465-79, June.
  13. Campa, Jose Manuel & Chang, P H Kevin, 1996. "Arbitrage-Based Tests of Target-Zone Credibility: Evidence from ERM Cross-Rate Options," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 726-40, September.
  14. Bruce Mizrach, 1993. "Target zone models with stochastic realignments: an econometric evaluation," Research Paper 9302, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  15. Sutherland, Alan, 1994. "Target Zone Models with Price Inertia: Solutions and Testable Implications," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(422), pages 96-112, January.
  16. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-76, December.
  17. Svensson, L.E., 1990. "The Foreign Exchange Risk Premium in a Target Zone with Devaluation Risk," Papers 475, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  18. Malz, Allan M., 1996. "Using option prices to estimate realignment probabilities in the European Monetary System: the case of sterling-mark," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 717-748, October.
  19. Mussa, Michael, 1986. "Nominal exchange rate regimes and the behavior of real exchange rates: Evidence and implications," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 117-214, January.
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