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Is Participation in Tourism Market an Opportunity for Everyone? Some Evidence from Italy


  • Cristina Bernini

    (Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy)

  • Maria Francesca Cracolici

    (Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, Italy)


Exploring the main determinants of tourism participation at national and international level, the paper investigates if there are differences in tourism consumption behavior among Italian families which reflect disparities in their standard of living. To achieve this a Heckman model has been used on a huge sample of Italian households over the period 1997-2007. Results show that participation in the tourism market is strongly affected by the personal characteristics of individuals and that tourism consumption is an income sensitive good. The analysis reveals that tourism is generally a luxury good reflecting the disparities in the standard of living among Italian families. We have found that participation in the tourism market is affected not only by economic constraints, but also by cultural and territorial factors.

Suggested Citation

  • Cristina Bernini & Maria Francesca Cracolici, 2014. "Is Participation in Tourism Market an Opportunity for Everyone? Some Evidence from Italy," Working Papers 2014.17, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2014.17

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Riccardo Massari & Maria Pittau & Roberto Zelli, 2009. "A dwindling middle class? Italian evidence in the 2000s," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 7(4), pages 333-350, December.
    2. Melenberg, Bertrand & van Soest, Arthur, 1996. "Parametric and Semi-parametric Modelling of Vacation Expenditures," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 59-76, Jan.-Feb..
    3. Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-333, March.
    4. repec:eee:touman:v:31:y:2010:i:1:p:45-56 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Dora L. Costa, 1999. "American Living Standards: Evidence from Recreational Expenditures," NBER Working Papers 7148, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Juan Eugenio-Martin & Juan Campos-Soria, 2011. "Income and the substitution pattern between domestic and international tourism demand," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(20), pages 2519-2531.
    7. van Soest, Arthur & Kooreman, Peter, 1987. "A Micro-econometric Analysis of Vacation Behaviour," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(3), pages 215-226, July.
    8. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    9. repec:eee:touman:v:39:y:2013:i:c:p:37-49 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Blundell, Richard & Pashardes, Panos & Weber, Guglielmo, 1993. "What Do We Learn About Consumer Demand Patterns from Micro Data?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 570-597, June.
    11. Maria Cracolici & Francesca Giambona & Miranda Cuffaro, 2014. "Family Structure and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Some New Evidence," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 118(1), pages 433-456, August.
    12. Michael J. Hay & Kenneth E. McConnell, 1979. "An Analysis of Participation in Nonconsumptive Wildlife Recreation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 55(4), pages 460-471.
    13. Thanos Mergoupis & Max Steuer, 2003. "Holiday taking and income," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(3), pages 269-284.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cellini, Roberto & Cuccia, Tiziana, 2014. "The Tourism Industry in Italy during the Great Recession (2008-12): What Data Show and Suggest," MPRA Paper 62473, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Feb 2015.
    2. repec:eee:touman:v:47:y:2015:i:c:p:191-205 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Gianluca Cafiso & Roberto Cellini & Tiziana Cuccia, 2015. "Do Economic Crises Lead Tourists to Closer Destinations? An Analysis of Italy's Regional Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 5250, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. repec:ene:journl:y:2016:p:237-246 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Tourism Consumption; Income Elasticity; Household Characteristics; Domestic and International Travels; Standard of Living;

    JEL classification:

    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism

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