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Evaluating the impact of the French tax credit on the employment rate of women

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Abstract

This paper investigates the employment impact of a new tax-credit programme that was put in place in France in 2001. We study the introduction of both this measure and a later reform in 2004 that made the tax credit cashable in advance upon returning to work. We adopt a non-experimental evaluation method. The data for the analysis are drawn from the French Labour Force Surveys over the period 1999 to 2005. Due to the break in the French LFS series in 2003, we analyze separately the two periods 1999-2002 and 2003-05, as well as pooling the data over 1999-2005, under particular assumptions. We find evidence of a significantly negative employment effect for married women, with a reduction of about 3.2-3.4 percentage points in their employment rate after the introduction of the policy. The impact is positive and weakly significant for cohabiting women, while positive but statistically insignificant for lone mothers. We do not find any evidence of an additional effect of the tax credit due to the cashable advance credit reform of 2004.

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  • Elena Stancanelli, 2007. "Evaluating the impact of the French tax credit on the employment rate of women," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2007-33, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  • Handle: RePEc:fce:doctra:0733
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 2001. "Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(3), pages 1063-1114.
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    11. Elena Stancanelli, 2007. "Marriage and Work: an analysis for French couples in the last decade," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2007-10, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    12. Mark B. Stewart, 2004. "The Impact of the Introduction of the U.K. Minimum Wage on the Employment Probabilities of Low-Wage Workers," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(1), pages 67-97, March.
    13. V. Joseph Hotz, 2003. "The Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Chapters,in: Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, pages 141-198 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
    15. Eissa, Nada & Hoynes, Hilary Williamson, 2004. "Taxes and the labor market participation of married couples: the earned income tax credit," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 1931-1958, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lehmann, Etienne & Marical, François & Rioux, Laurence, 2013. "Labor income responds differently to income-tax and payroll-tax reforms," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 66-84.
    2. Hans Bloemen & Elena Stancanelli, 2007. "Modelling the employment and wage outcomes of spouses: is she outearning him?," Post-Print hal-01053593, HAL.
    3. Bargain, Olivier & Doorley, Karina, 2009. "Caught in the Trap? The Disincentive Effect of Social Assistance," IRISS Working Paper Series 2009-10, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
    4. Olivier Bargain & Karina Doorley, 2009. "In-work transfers in good times and bad - simulations for Ireland," Working Papers 200930, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    5. Olivier Bargain & Andreas Peichl, 2016. "Own-wage labor supply elasticities: variation across time and estimation methods," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-31, December.
    6. Olivier Bargain & Andreas Peichl, 2013. "Steady-State Labor Supply Elasticities: An International Comparison," AMSE Working Papers 1322, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Marseille, France.
    7. Stancanelli, Elena G. F., 2012. "Spouses' Retirement and Hours Outcomes: Evidence from Twofold Regression Discontinuity with Differences-in-Differences," IZA Discussion Papers 6791, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Elena Stancanelli, 2012. "Spouses' Retirement and Hours of Work Outcomes: Evidence from Twofold Regression Discontinuity," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 12074, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    9. Hans Bloemen & Elena Stancanelli, 2008. "Modelling employment and wage outcomes of spouses: is she outearning him?," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2008-01, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    10. Olivier Bargain & Mathias Dolls & Dirk Neumann & Andreas Peichl & Sebastian Siegloch, 2011. "Tax-Benefit Systems in Europe and the US: Between Equity and Efficiency," CESifo Working Paper Series 3534, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Leon Bettendorf & Kees Folmer & Egbert Jongen, 2013. "The dog that did not bark: The EITC for single mothers in the Netherlands," CPB Discussion Paper 229, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    12. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/9665 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Bargain, Olivier & Peichl, Andreas, 2013. "Steady-state labor supply elasticities: A survey," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-084, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    14. Ai-Thu Dang & Jean-Marie Monnier, 2011. "Gender Regimes and Welfare States in France: A historical perspective," EconomiX Working Papers 2011-40, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    15. John Dagsvik & Zhiyang Jia & Kristian Orsini & Guy Camp, 2011. "Subsidies on low-skilled workers’ social security contributions: the case of Belgium," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 779-806, May.
    16. Bettendorf, Leon J.H. & Folmer, Kees & Jongen, Egbert L.W., 2014. "The dog that did not bark: The EITC for single mothers in the Netherlands," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 49-60.
    17. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/10023 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    policy evaluation; difference-in-differences estimator; labour supply;

    JEL classification:

    • C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

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