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German International Trade: Interpreting Export Flows According to the Gravity Model

Author

Listed:
  • Michal Paulus

    (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nábreží 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)

  • Eva Michalikova

    (Brno University of Technology, Brno and Anglo-American University, Prague)

  • Vladimir Benacek

    (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nábreží 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)

Abstract

The paper applies the gravity model of international trade in its analysis of German exports. The added value of our research is derived from the innovative shift in focus from the traditional gravity model specifications to the national level in order to interpret its estimations in a non-traditional way, but remain consistent with data structure and thus bring new insights into the analysis of German export performance. Our panel dataset includes German exports to 176 countries and 22 control variables including institutional factors over the period 1995-2011. We estimated a Random Effects model and also a Least Trimmed Squares model to control for the heterogeneity between countries. We distinguish two panel data specifications: time-series and cross-section. This allows us to examine long-term and short-term decision horizons. The general conclusion of our model is that German exporters are more prone to expand the trade to countries that are more distant from their European neighbourhood relative to the world average. Exports are sensitive to both the real exchange rate movements and the price levels of partner countries, even though their elasticity is significantly less than unity, which suggests that German exports would not be impacted very much if the Euro appreciated in real terms. The position of the Euro in German trade seems to be rather ambiguous since not all tests revealed its role as a catalyst.

Suggested Citation

  • Michal Paulus & Eva Michalikova & Vladimir Benacek, 2014. "German International Trade: Interpreting Export Flows According to the Gravity Model," Working Papers IES 2014/19, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised May 2014.
  • Handle: RePEc:fau:wpaper:wp2014_19
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    File URL: http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/sci/publication/show/id/5093/lang/cs
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Germany; export; gravity model; fixed effects; random effects; least trimmed squares;

    JEL classification:

    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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