Inequality of Opportunity in Japan: A behavioral genetic approach
This study examined the extent to which the inequality of opportunity exists in Japan, using a classical twin design. Participants were 1,006 working, male twins (738 identical and 268 fraternal twins; age 20–60) recruited via a web-based survey. Participants responded to the questions of academic achievement at the ninth grade, years of education, and annual income. Univariate genetic analyses revealed that individual differences in each of the three variables are substantially influenced by the following factors: genetic (27%–35%), family environment (34%–47%), and individual-specific environment (26%–30%). Gene-environment interaction analyses revealed that genetic and environmental etiologies of education and income differ across age/cohort; for education, genetic influences are weaker and family environmental influences are stronger in the older age/cohort, whereas for income, the former is stronger and the latter is weaker for the older age/cohort. Finally, multivariate genetic analyses revealed that family environmental factors unrelated with academic achievement exert strong influences on income, in part, via education. These results suggest that inequality of opportunity exists among Japanese males even when genetic influences are controlled for. This paper discusses the need for future research on the inequality of opportunity, using a genetically informative design.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.rieti.go.jp/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ken Yamada, 2012.
"Family Background and Economic Outcomes in Japan,"
23-2012, Singapore Management University, School of Economics.
- Anh T. Le & Paul W. Miller & Wendy S. Slutske & Nicholas G. Martin, 2011. "Opportunity and Educational Outcomes in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 87(s1), pages 125-135, 09.
- Jo Blanden, 2013. "Cross-Country Rankings In Intergenerational Mobility: A Comparison Of Approaches From Economics And Sociology," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(1), pages 38-73, 02.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:13097. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (NUKATANI Sorahiko)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.