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Increasing Returns in Transportation and the Formation of Hubs


  • MORI Tomoya


The spatial structure of transport networks is subject to increasing returns in transportation, distance, and density economies. Transport costs between locations are thus, in general, endogenous, and are determined by the interaction between the spatial distribution of transport demand and these increasing returns, although such interdependence has long been ignored in regional models. By using a simple model, the present paper investigates the characteristics of viable hub structures (in terms of spacing and hierarchical relations) given the presence of density and distance economies in transportation.

Suggested Citation

  • MORI Tomoya, 2012. "Increasing Returns in Transportation and the Formation of Hubs," Discussion papers 12005, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:12005

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Thierry Mayer & Jacques-François Thisse, 2008. "Economic Geography: The Integration of Regions and Nations," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00311000, HAL.
    2. Fujita, Masahisa & Mori, Tomoya, 1997. "Structural stability and evolution of urban systems," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(4-5), pages 399-442, August.
    3. Mori, Tomoya, 1997. "A Modeling of Megalopolis Formation: The Maturing of City Systems," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 133-157, July.
    4. Takatoshi Tabuchi & Jacques-François Thisse, 2006. "Regional Specialization, Urban Hierarchy, And Commuting Costs," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1295-1317, November.
    5. Tomoya Mori & Koji Nishikimi & Tony E. Smith, 2005. "A Divergence Statistic for Industrial Localization," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(4), pages 635-651, November.
    6. Akamatsu, Takashi & Takayama, Yuki & Ikeda, Kiyohiro, 2012. "Spatial discounting, Fourier, and racetrack economy: A recipe for the analysis of spatial agglomeration models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 1729-1759.
    7. Fujita, Masahisa & Krugman, Paul & Mori, Tomoya, 1999. "On the evolution of hierarchical urban systems1," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 209-251, February.
    8. Tomoya Mori & Tony E. Smith, 2011. "An Industrial Agglomeration Approach To Central Place And City Size Regularities," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(4), pages 694-731, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Xu, Hangtian, 2016. "Domestic railroad infrastructure and exports: Evidence from the Silk Route," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 129-147.
    2. Li, Zhigang & Xu, Hangtian, 2016. "High-Speed Railroad and Economic Geography: Evidence from Japan," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 485, Asian Development Bank.
    3. Hangtian Xu, 2014. "Revisit' the Silk Road: A Quasi-Experiment Approach Estimating the Effects of Railway Speed-Up Project on China-Central Asia Exports," ERSA conference papers ersa14p78, European Regional Science Association.
    4. Xu, Hangtian & Itoh, Hidekazu, 2016. "Density economies and transport geography: Evidence from the container shipping industry," MPRA Paper 75580, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R49 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Other

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