IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Shift from "Market-led" to "Institution-led" Regional Economic Integration in East Asia in the late 1990s


  • Shujiro Urata


The paper identifies the changes in the nature of regional economic integration in East Asia from "market-led" to "institution-led" integration in the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s active foreign trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) mainly resulting from trade and FDI liberalization led to greater intra-regional dependence among the countries in East Asia. Indeed, regional production systems have been developed in industries such as electronics, automobiles, and apparel, mainly by the initiatives of foreign companies. After the late 1990s East Asian countries started to show strong interest in regional institutions such as free trade agreements (FTAs) largely because of the outbreak of Asian crisis and growing interest in FTAs in other parts of the world. FTAs are likely to bring economic, political, social and other types of benefits to the region and the rest of the world, but there exist various obstacles to the formation of FTAs. Some serious obstacles are strong opposition to trade and FDI liberalization by non-competitive sectors and a lack of mutual understanding about historic, political, and other issues among East Asian countries. The paper makes several propositions such as increasing mutual exchange of people to overcome these obstacles.

Suggested Citation

  • Shujiro Urata, 2004. "The Shift from "Market-led" to "Institution-led" Regional Economic Integration in East Asia in the late 1990s," Discussion papers 04012, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  • Handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:04012

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1993. "Is Japan Creating a Yen Bloc in East Asia and the Pacific?," NBER Chapters,in: Regionalism and Rivalry: Japan and the United States in Pacific Asia, pages 53-88 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Shujiro Urata & Kozo Kiyota, 2003. "The Impacts of an East Asia FTA on Foreign Trade in East Asia," NBER Working Papers 10173, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Gereffi, Gary, 1999. "International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 37-70, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Vlatka Bilas & Sanja Franc, 2010. "Globalization, Regionalization and Information-Communication Convergence of Africa," Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems - scientific journal, Croatian Interdisciplinary Society Provider Homepage:, vol. 8(2), pages 104-118.
    2. Capannelli, Giovanni & Filippini, Carlo, 2009. "East Asian and European Economic Integration: A Comparative Analysis," Working Papers on Regional Economic Integration 29, Asian Development Bank.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eti:dpaper:04012. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (KUMAGAI, Akiko). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.