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Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes


  • Blitz, D.C.
  • van Vliet, P.


In this paper we examine global tactical asset allocation (GTAA) strategies across a broad range of asset classes. Contrary to market timing for single asset classes and tactical allocation across similar assets, this topic has received little attention in the existing literature. Our main finding is that momentum and value strategies applied to GTAA across twelve asset classes deliver statistically and economically significant abnormal returns. For a long top-quartile and short bottom-quartile portfolio based on a combination of momentum and value signals we find a return of 12% per annum over the 1986-2007 period. Performance is stable over time, also present in an out-of-sample period and sufficiently high to overcome transaction costs in practice. The return cannot be explained by potential structural biases towards asset classes with high risk premiums, nor the Fama French and Carhart hedge factors. We argue that financial markets may be macro inefficient due to insufficient ‘smart money’ being available to arbitrage mispricing effects away.

Suggested Citation

  • Blitz, D.C. & van Vliet, P., 2008. "Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2008-033-F&A, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  • Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:12598

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Richards, Anthony J, 1997. "Winner-Loser Reversals in National Stock Market Indices: Can They Be Explained?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 2129-2144, December.
    2. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1996. "Multifactor Explanations of Asset Pricing Anomalies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 55-84, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dr. Humberto Valencia Herrera, 2015. "Decomposition of the Stocks Returns in the Sustainable Index of the Mexican Stock Exchange," Remef - The Mexican Journal of Economics and Finance, Instituto Mexicano de Ejecutivos de Finanzas. Remef, March.
    2. Carmine De Franco & Johann Nicolle & Huyên Pham, 2019. "Dealing with Drift Uncertainty: A Bayesian Learning Approach," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(1), pages 1-18, January.
    3. Adam Zaremba, 2019. "The Cross Section of Country Equity Returns: A Review of Empirical Literature," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(4), pages 1-26, October.
    4. Zaremba, Adam & Long, Huaigang & Karathanasopoulos, Andreas, 2019. "Short-term momentum (almost) everywhere," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    5. Stephan Kessler & Bernd Scherer, 2013. "Momentum and macroeconomic state variables," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 27(4), pages 335-363, December.
    6. Adam Zaremba & Jacob Koby Shemer, 2018. "Price-Based Investment Strategies," Springer Books, Springer, number 978-3-319-91530-2, December.
    7. Adam Zaremba, 2016. "Is there a low-risk anomaly across countries?," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 6(1), pages 45-65, April.
    8. Zura Kakushadze & Juan Andrés Serur, 2018. "151 Trading Strategies," Springer Books, Springer, number 978-3-030-02792-6, December.
    9. Zaremba, Adam & Umutlu, Mehmet, 2018. "Size matters everywhere: Decomposing the small country and small industry premia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1-18.
    10. Kees G. Koedijk & Alfred M.H. Slager & Philip A. Stork, 2016. "Investing in Systematic Factor Premiums," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 22(2), pages 193-234, March.
    11. Angelidis, Timotheos & Tessaromatis, Nikolaos, 2014. "Global Style Portfolios Based on Country Indices," MPRA Paper 53094, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Nafeesa Yunus, 2016. "Modelling interactions among the housing market and key US sectors," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 121-146, April.
    13. Zaremba, Adam & Umutlu, Mehmet & Karathanasopoulos, Andreas, 2019. "Alpha momentum and alpha reversal in country and industry equity indexes," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 144-161.
    14. Tse, Yiuman, 2015. "Momentum strategies with stock index exchange-traded funds," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 134-148.
    15. Bradley Jones, 2015. "Asset Bubbles; Re-thinking Policy for the Age of Asset Management," IMF Working Papers 15/27, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Zaremba, Adam, 2019. "Price range and the cross-section of expected country and industry returns," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 174-189.
    17. Dichtl, Hubert & Drobetz, Wolfgang, 2014. "Are stock markets really so inefficient? The case of the “Halloween Indicator”," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 112-121.
    18. Humberto Valencia Herrera, 2015. "Decomposition of the Stocks Returns in the Sustainable Index of the Mexican Stock Exchange," Remef - Revista Mexicana de Economía y Finanzas Nueva Época REMEF (The Mexican Journal of Economics and Finance), Instituto Mexicano de Ejecutivos de Finanzas, IMEF, vol. 10(1), pages 85-99, Enero-Jun.

    More about this item


    GTAA; global asset allocation; momentum; value effect;

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics


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