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Labour market dynamics in Canada, 1891-1911: a first look from new census samples

  • Kris Inwood
  • Mary MacKinnon
  • Chris Minns

This paper uses newly available census evidence to portray changes in labour market outcomes in Canada between 1891 and 1911. Multiple census cross-sections allow for the documentation of how the location, occupation, and earnings of Canadian and foreign-born cohorts changed over time. The westward movement of young anglophones after 1901 contributed to the formation of a national labour market. Anglophone, francophone, and foreign-born cohorts all experienced significant occupational mobility between 1891 and 1911, but francophones and immigrants remained over-represented at the bottom of the occupational ladder. Greater occupational and geographical mobility supported higher rates of earnings growth among Anglophones.

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Paper provided by London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History in its series Economic History Working Papers with number 30016.

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Length: 62 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ehl:wpaper:30016
Contact details of provider: Postal: LSE, Dept. of Economic History Houghton Street London, WC2A 2AE, U.K.
Phone: +44 (0) 20 7955 7084
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  1. Chris Minns & Alan Green, Mary MacKinnon, 2005. "Conspicuous by their Absence: French Canadians and the Settlement of the Canadian West," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp065, IIIS.
  2. Inwood, K. & Stengos, T., 1990. "Discontinuities In Canadian Economic Growth, 1870-1985," Working Papers 1990-4, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
  3. Baker, Michael & Hamilton, Gillian, 2000. "Écarts salariaux entre francophones et anglophones à Montréal au 19e siècle," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 76(1), pages 75-111, mars.
  4. Green, Alan & MacKinnon, Mary, 2001. "The Slow Assimilation of British Immigrants in Canada: Evidence from Montreal and Toronto, 1901," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 315-338, July.
  5. J.C.Herbert Emery & Kris Inwood & Henry Thille, 2007. "Hecksher-Ohlin In Canada: New Estimates Of Regional Wages And Land Prices," Australian Economic History Review, Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 47(1), pages 22-48, 03.
  6. Hatton, Timothy J., 1997. "The Immigrant Assimilation Puzzle in Late Nineteenth-Centuty America," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 57(01), pages 34-62, March.
  7. J. C. Herbert Emery & Clint Levitt, 2002. "Cost of living, real wages and real incomes in thirteen Canadian cities, 1900-1950," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(1), pages 115-137, February.
  8. Minns, Chris, 2000. "Income, Cohort Effects, and Occupational Mobility: A New Look at Immigration to the United States at the Turn of the 20th Century," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 326-350, October.
  9. Chris Minns & Mary Mackinnon, 2005. "The Costs of Doing Hard Time: A penitentiary-based regional price index for Canada, 1883-1923," Trinity Economics Papers tep1, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  10. Mary MacKinnon, 1996. "New Evidence on Canadian Wage Rates, 1900-1930," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(1), pages 114-31, February.
  11. Alan G. Green & Mary MacKinnon & Chris Minns, 2002. "Dominion or Republic? Migrants to North America from the United Kingdom, 1870–1910," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 55(4), pages 666-696, November.
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