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Mean-semivariance behavior (II): The D-CAPM

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  • Estrada, Javier

    () (IESE Business School)

Abstract

For over 30 years academics and practitioners have been debating the merits of the CAPM. One of the characteristics of this model is that it measures risk by beta, which follows from an equilibrium in which investors display mean-variance behavior. In that framework, risk is assessed by the variance of returns, a questionable and restrictive measure of risk. The semivariance of returns is a more plausible measure of risk and can be used to generate an alternative behavioral hypothesis (mean-semivariance behavior), an alternative measure of risk for diversified investors (the downside beta), and an alternative pricing model (the D-CAPM). The empirical evidence discussed in this article for the entire MSCI database of developed and emerging markets clearly supports the downside beta and the D-CAPM over beta and the CAPM.

Suggested Citation

  • Estrada, Javier, 2003. "Mean-semivariance behavior (II): The D-CAPM," IESE Research Papers D/493, IESE Business School.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebg:iesewp:d-0493
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Estrada, Javier, 2002. "Systematic risk in emerging markets: the," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 365-379, December.
    2. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-291, March.
    3. René M. Stulz, 1995. "Globalization Of Capital Markets And The Cost Of Capital: The Case Of Nestlé," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 8(3), pages 30-38.
    4. Harlow, W. V. & Rao, Ramesh K. S., 1989. "Asset Pricing in a Generalized Mean-Lower Partial Moment Framework: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 285-311, September.
    5. Bawa, Vijay S. & Lindenberg, Eric B., 1977. "Capital market equilibrium in a mean-lower partial moment framework," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 189-200, November.
    6. Rene M. Stulz, 1999. "Globalization of Equity Markets and the Cost of Capital," NBER Working Papers 7021, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Hogan, William W. & Warren, James M., 1974. "Toward the Development of an Equilibrium Capital-Market Model Based on Semivariance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(01), pages 1-11, January.
    8. Markowitz, Harry M, 1991. " Foundations of Portfolio Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 469-477, June.
    9. Levy, H & Markowtiz, H M, 1979. "Approximating Expected Utility by a Function of Mean and Variance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 308-317, June.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    downside risk; semideviation; asset pricing;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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