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Accounting in a Country : The Case of Pakistan

Author

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  • Junaid Ashraf

    (LUMS)

  • Waqar I. Ghani

Abstract

Our paper examines the origins, growth, and the development of accounting practices and disclosures in Pakistan and the factors that influenced them. We traced the early days of accounting in the Indian subcontinent and the British colonial influence over the accounting of newly independent State. We examined the development of accounting through three eras : 1) Independence through 1971, 2) Post 1971 1984, and 3) 1984 to the present. We described how the colonial past and later the international financial institutions such as the Asian Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund played a key role in shaping accounting and reporting practices of the country. Pakistans adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards as national standards in 1985 did not lead to improvement in the quality of financial reporting. Pakistan, though classified as a common law country in literature exhibits most of the properties of code law countries. We argue that lack of investor protection (e.g., minority rights protection, insidertrading protection), judicial inefficiencies, and weak enforcement mechanisms are more critical factors than are cultural factors in explaining the state of accounting in Pakistan. We conclude that it is the enforcement mechanisms that are paramount in improving the quality of accounting in developing economies.

Suggested Citation

  • Junaid Ashraf & Waqar I. Ghani, 2005. "Accounting in a Country : The Case of Pakistan," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22246, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eab:macroe:22246
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    File URL: http://www.eaber.org/node/22246
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ole-Kristian Hope, 2003. "Disclosure Practices, Enforcement of Accounting Standards, and Analysts' Forecast Accuracy: An International Study," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 235-272, May.
    2. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 2000. "Investor protection and corporate governance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 3-27.
    3. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    4. Ball, Ray & Kothari, S. P. & Robin, Ashok, 2000. "The effect of international institutional factors on properties of accounting earnings," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 1-51, February.
    5. Christian Leuz, 2003. "IAS Versus U.S. GAAP: Information Asymmetry-Based Evidence from Germany's New Market," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(3), pages 445-472, June.
    6. Ball, Ray & Kothari, S. P. & Robin, Ashok, 2000. "Corrigendum to "The effect of international institutional factors on properties of accounting earnings"; [Journal of Accounting and Economics 29 (2000) 1-51]," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 241-241, October.
    7. repec:bla:joares:v:38:y:2000:i:1:p:1-21 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Attiya Y. Javed & Robina Iqbal, 2007. "The Relationship between Corporate Governance Indicators and Firm Value : A Case Study of Karachi Stock Exchange," Governance Working Papers 22198, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    2. Faiza A. Chaudary & Marc Goergen & Shoeb I. Syed, 2006. "Corporate Governance in the Financial Sector of Pakistan," Governance Working Papers 22253, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    culture; Colonial; Corporate governance; Accounting Practices; International Standards; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • M41 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Accounting - - - Accounting
    • M40 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Accounting - - - General
    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General

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