IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/dls/wpaper/0214.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Does the Adoption of Complex Software Impact Employment Composition and the Skill Content of Occupations? Evidence from Chilean Firms

Author

Listed:
  • Rita K. Almeida

    (World Bank & IZA)

  • Ana M. Fernandes

    (World Bank)

  • Mariana Viollaz

    (CEDLAS-FCE-UNLP)

Abstract

A major concern with the rapid spread of technology is that it replaces some jobs, displacing workers. However, technology may raise firm productivity, generating more jobs. The paper contributes to this debate by exploiting a novel panel data set for Chilean firms in all sectors between 2007 and 2013. While previous studies examine the impacts of automation on the use of routine tasks by middle-educated workers. This study focuses on a measure of complex software that is typically used by more educated workers in cognitive and nonroutine tasks for client, production, and business management. The instrumental variables estimates show that in the medium run, firms’ adoption of complex software affects firms’ employment decisions and the skill content of occupations. The adoption of complex software reallocates employment from skilled workers to administrative and unskilled production workers. This reallocation leads to an increase in the use of routine and manual tasks and a reduction in the use of abstract tasks within firms. Interestingly, the impacts tend to be concentrated in sectors with a less educated workforce, suggesting that technology can constrain job creation for the more skilled workers there. The paper concludes that the type of technology matters for understanding the impacts of technology adoption on the labor market.

Suggested Citation

  • Rita K. Almeida & Ana M. Fernandes & Mariana Viollaz, 2017. "Does the Adoption of Complex Software Impact Employment Composition and the Skill Content of Occupations? Evidence from Chilean Firms," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0214, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  • Handle: RePEc:dls:wpaper:0214
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://cedlas.econo.unlp.edu.ar/archivos_upload/doc_cedlas214.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Cruces, Guillermo & Fields, Gary S. & Jaume, David & Viollaz, Mariana, 2017. "Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198801085.
    2. Nicholas Bloom & Luis Garicano & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2014. "The Distinct Effects of Information Technology and Communication Technology on Firm Organization," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(12), pages 2859-2885, December.
    3. Sanderson, Eleanor & Windmeijer, Frank, 2016. "A weak instrument F-test in linear IV models with multiple endogenous variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(2), pages 212-221.
    4. Benjamin Engelstätter & Miruna Sarbu, 2013. "Does enterprise software matter for service innovation? Standardization versus customization," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 412-429, June.
    5. Georg Graetz & Guy Michaels, 2018. "Robots at Work," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 100(5), pages 753-768, December.
    6. Timothy De Stefano & Richard Kneller & Jonathan Timmis, 2014. "The (Fuzzy) Digital Divide: The Effect of Broadband Internet Use on UK Firm Performance," Discussion Papers 14/06, University of Nottingham, School of Economics.
    7. Melanie Arntz & Terry Gregory & Ulrich Zierahn, 2016. "The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 189, OECD Publishing.
    8. Daron Acemoglu, 1999. "Changes in Unemployment and Wage Inequality: An Alternative Theory and Some Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1259-1278, December.
    9. Nathalie Greenan & Jacques Mairesse & Agnès Topiol-Bensaid, 2001. "Information Technology and Research and Developement Impacts on Productivity and Skills: Looking for Correlations on French Firm-Level Data," Working Papers hal-02104933, HAL.
    10. Paul Gaggl & Greg C. Wright, 2017. "A Short-Run View of What Computers Do: Evidence from a UK Tax Incentive," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 262-294, July.
    11. David H. Autor & Frank Levy & Richard J. Murnane, 2003. "The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
    12. Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2002. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 339-376.
    13. Eve Caroli & John Van Reenen, 2001. "Skill-Biased Organizational Change? Evidence from A Panel of British and French Establishments," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1449-1492.
    14. Maarten Goos & Alan Manning, 2007. "Lousy and Lovely Jobs: The Rising Polarization of Work in Britain," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(1), pages 118-133, February.
    15. Daron Acemoglu & Pascual Restrepo, 2020. "Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 128(6), pages 2188-2244.
    16. David H. Autor & Michael J. Handel, 2013. "Putting Tasks to the Test: Human Capital, Job Tasks, and Wages," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(S1), pages 59-96.
    17. José Miguel Benavente & David Bravo & Rodrigo Montero, 2011. "Wages And Workplace Computer Use In Chile," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 49(4), pages 382-403, December.
    18. Rita K. Almeida & Carlos H. L, Corseuil & Jennifer Poole, 2017. "The Impact of Digital Technologies on Worker Tasks: Do Labor Policies Matter?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6798, CESifo.
    19. Brambilla,Irene & Tortarolo,Darío, 2018. "Investment in ICT, productivity, and labor demand : the case of Argentina," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8325, The World Bank.
    20. repec:oec:stiaaa:2016/2-en is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Frey, Carl Benedikt & Osborne, Michael A., 2017. "The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 254-280.
    22. Ann Bartel & Casey Ichniowski & Kathryn Shaw, 2007. "How Does Information Technology Affect Productivity? Plant-Level Comparisons of Product Innovation, Process Improvement, and Worker Skills," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(4), pages 1721-1758.
    23. Luca Marcolin & Sébastien Miroudot & Mariagrazia Squicciarini, 2016. "The Routine Content Of Occupations: New Cross-Country Measures Based On PIAAC," OECD Trade Policy Papers 188, OECD Publishing.
    24. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
    25. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10093 is not listed on IDEAS
    26. David H. Autor, 2015. "Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 29(3), pages 3-30, Summer.
    27. Pouliakas, Konstantinos & Russo, Giovanni, 2015. "Heterogeneity of Skill Needs and Job Complexity: Evidence from the OECD PIAAC Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 9392, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    28. Almeida,Rita Kullberg & Corseuil,Carlos H. L. & Poole,Jennifer Pamela, 2017. "The impact of digital technologies on routine tasks : do labor policies matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8187, The World Bank.
    29. Pietro Santoleri, 2015. "Diversity and intensity of information and communication technologies use and product innovation: evidence from Chilean micro-data," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(6), pages 550-568, September.
    30. Dicarlo, Emanuele & Lo Bello, Salvatore & Monroy-Taborda, Sebastian & Oviedo, Ana Maria & Sanchez Puerta, Maria Laura & Santos, Indhira, 2016. "The Skill Content of Occupations across Low and Middle Income Countries: Evidence from Harmonized Data," IZA Discussion Papers 10224, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    31. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-338, May.
    32. Valeria Cirillo, 2014. "Patterns of innovation and wage distribution. Do “innovative firms” pay higher wages? Evidence from Chile," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 4(2), pages 181-206, December.
    33. Iacovone,Leonardo & Pereira Lopez,Mariana De La Paz & Schiffbauer,Marc Tobias & Iacovone,Leonardo & Pereira Lopez,Mariana De La Paz & Schiffbauer,Marc Tobias, 2016. "Competition makes IT better : evidence on when firms use it more effectively," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7638, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Rita K. Almeida & Carlos H. L, Corseuil & Jennifer Poole, 2017. "The Impact of Digital Technologies on Worker Tasks: Do Labor Policies Matter?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6798, CESifo.
    2. Tiare Rivera, 2019. "Efectos de la automatización en el empleo en Chile," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Business, vol. 34(1), pages 3-49, April.
    3. Mariana Viollaz, 2018. "ICT Adoption in Micro and Small Firms: Can Internet Access Improve Labour Productivity?," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0223, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    4. Mariana Viollaz, 2017. "ICT Adoption in Micro and Small Firms: Can Internet Access Improve Labor Productivity?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6839, CESifo.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mariana Viollaz, 2018. "ICT Adoption in Micro and Small Firms: Can Internet Access Improve Labour Productivity?," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0223, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    2. Mariana Viollaz, 2017. "ICT Adoption in Micro and Small Firms: Can Internet Access Improve Labor Productivity?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6839, CESifo.
    3. Cortes, Guido Matias & Salvatori, Andrea, 2019. "Delving into the demand side: Changes in workplace specialization and job polarization," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 164-176.
    4. Maarten Goos & Melanie Arntz & Ulrich Zierahn & Terry Gregory & Stephanie Carretero Gomez & Ignacio Gonzalez Vazquez & Koen Jonkers, 2019. "The Impact of Technological Innovation on the Future of Work," JRC Working Papers on Labour, Education and Technology 2019-03, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    5. Arntz, Melanie & Gregory, Terry & Zierahn, Ulrich, 2016. "ELS issues in robotics and steps to consider them. Part 1: Robotics and employment. Consequences of robotics and technological change for the structure and level of employment," ZEW Expertises, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, number 146501.
    6. Paul Gaggl & Greg C. Wright, 2017. "A Short-Run View of What Computers Do: Evidence from a UK Tax Incentive," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 262-294, July.
    7. Hüseyin Taştan & Feride Gönel, 2020. "ICT labor, software usage, and productivity: firm-level evidence from Turkey," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 53(2), pages 265-285, April.
    8. Eckhardt Bode & Stephan Brunow & Ingrid Ott & Alina Sorgner, 2019. "Worker Personality: Another Skill Bias beyond Education in the Digital Age," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 20(4), pages 254-294, November.
    9. Dengler, Katharina & Matthes, Britta, 2018. "The impacts of digital transformation on the labour market: Substitution potentials of occupations in Germany," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 304-316.
    10. MIYAKAWA Daisuke & MIYAUCHI Yuhei & Christian PEREZ, 2017. "Who Are Afraid of Losing Their Jobs to Artificial Intelligence and Robots? Evidence from a survey," Discussion papers 17069, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    11. Gunther Tichy, 2016. "Geht der Arbeitsgesellschaft die Arbeit aus?," WIFO Monatsberichte (monthly reports), WIFO, vol. 89(12), pages 853-871, December.
    12. DeStefano, Timothy & Kneller, Richard & Timmis, Jonathan, 2018. "Broadband infrastructure, ICT use and firm performance: Evidence for UK firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 110-139.
    13. Thor Berger & Carl Benedikt Frey, 2016. "Structural Transformation in the OECD: Digitalisation, Deindustrialisation and the Future of Work," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 193, OECD Publishing.
    14. Julia Bock-Schappelwein & Michael Böheim & Elisabeth Christen & Stefan Ederer & Matthias Firgo & Klaus S. Friesenbichler & Werner Hölzl & Mathias Kirchner & Angela Köppl & Agnes Kügler & Christine May, 2018. "Politischer Handlungsspielraum zur optimalen Nutzung der Vorteile der Digitalisierung für Wirtschaftswachstum, Beschäftigung und Wohlstand," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 61256.
    15. David J. Deming, 2017. "The Growing Importance of Social Skills in the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(4), pages 1593-1640.
    16. İ. Akçomak & Lex Borghans & Bas Weel, 2011. "Measuring and Interpreting Trends in the Division of Labour in the Netherlands," De Economist, Springer, vol. 159(4), pages 435-482, December.
    17. Andrea Salvatori & Seetha Menon & Wouter Zwysen, 2018. "The effect of computer use on job quality: Evidence from Europe," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 200, OECD Publishing.
    18. McGuinness, Seamus & Pouliakas, Konstantinos & Redmond, Paul, 2019. "Skills-Displacing Technological Change and Its Impact on Jobs: Challenging Technological Alarmism?," IZA Discussion Papers 12541, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Gregory, Terry & Salomons, Anna & Zierahn, Ulrich, 2016. "Racing With or Against the Machine? Evidence from Europe," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145843, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    20. Anders Akerman & Ingvil Gaarder & Magne Mogstad, 2015. "The Skill Complementarity of Broadband Internet," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 130(4), pages 1781-1824.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dls:wpaper:0214. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ana Pacheco). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/funlpar.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.