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Tariff Peaks in the Quad and Least Developed Country Exports


  • Hoekman, Bernard
  • Ng, Francis
  • Olarreaga, Marcelo


Although average tariffs in Quad markets are very low, tariff peaks and tariff escalation have a disproportional effect on exports from least developed countries (LDCs). Tariff peak products tend to be heavily concentrated in agriculture and food products and in labour-intensive sectors such as apparel and footwear. Full duty and quota free access for LDCs in the Quad for tariff peak products would result in an 11% increase in their total exports - in the order of $2.5 billion. Exports to Quad countries of tariff peak products would expand by 30-60%. Given that LDC exports of tariff peak items account for only a small share of total developing country exports, granting LDCs duty free access has a negligible impact on other developing countries. For the same reason, Quad imports increase only marginally, suggesting that this should not be a factor constraining implementation of duty free access for the poorest countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Hoekman, Bernard & Ng, Francis & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2001. "Tariff Peaks in the Quad and Least Developed Country Exports," CEPR Discussion Papers 2747, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2747

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mattoo, Aaditya & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2000. "Reciprocity Across Modes of Supply in the WTO: A Negotiating Formula," CEPR Discussion Papers 2481, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Finger, J. Michael & Schuknecht, Ludger, 1999. "Market access advances and retreats : the Uruguay Round and beyond," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2232, The World Bank.
    3. Elena Ianchovichina & Aaditya Mattoo & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2001. "Unrestricted Market Access for Sub‐Saharan Africa: How Much Is It Worth and Who Pays?," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 10(4), pages 410-432.
    4. Ng, Francis & Yeats, Alexander, 1997. "Open economies work better! did Africa's protectionist policies cause its marginalization in world trade?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 889-904, June.
    5. Michalopoulos,Constantine, 1999. "Trade policy and market access issues for developing countries : implications for the Millennium Round," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2214, The World Bank.
    6. Kee, Hiau Looi & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Silva, Peri, 2007. "Market access for sale," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 79-94, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hoekman, Bernanrd & Ng, Francis & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2003. "Reducing agrcultural tariffs versus domestic support : what's more important for developing countries?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2918, The World Bank.
    2. Elena Ianchovichina & Aaditya Mattoo & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2001. "Unrestricted Market Access for Sub‐Saharan Africa: How Much Is It Worth and Who Pays?," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 10(4), pages 410-432.
    3. Hoekman, Bernard, 2002. "Developing Countries and the Political Economy of the Trading System," WIDER Working Paper Series 126, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. Hoekman, Bernard & Ng, Francis & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2002. "Reducing Agriculture Tariffs Versus Domestic Support: What's More Important for Developing Countries?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3576, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. AfDB AfDB, 2008. "Working Paper 95 - Agricultural Trade Policy Reform in South Africa," Working Paper Series 2228, African Development Bank.
    6. World Bank, 2005. "East Asia Update, November 2005 : Countering Global Shocks," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12850, The World Bank.
    7. Chitiga, Margaret & Kandiero, Tonia & Ngwenya, P., 2008. "Agricultural trade policy reform in South Africa," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 47(1), March.
    8. World Bank, 2003. "Global Economic Prospects 2004 : Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14782, March.

    More about this item


    Least Developed Countries; Market Access; Trade Preferences;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations


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