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Investment, Liquidity Constraints and Bank Relationships: Evidence from German Manufacturing Firms


  • Elston, Julie Ann


This paper presents evidence supporting the theory that informational and incentive problems in capital markets affect firm investment. This hypothesis is tested by estimating investment equations for two groups of German manufacturing firms. The first group of firms are those with bank ownership, suggesting lower costs to banks of obtaining information and better access to capital for the firm. The second group contains independent firms, that are expected to face greater external financing costs and liquidity constraints. Findings support the hypothesis of greater investment sensitivity to liquidity constraints, as well as increased investment sensitivity over time, for the group of independent firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Elston, Julie Ann, 1996. "Investment, Liquidity Constraints and Bank Relationships: Evidence from German Manufacturing Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 1329, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1329

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Steven Ongena, 1999. "Lending Relationships, Bank Default and Economic Activity," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 257-280.
    2. Dietmar Harhoff, 1998. "Are there Financing Constraints for R&D and Investment in German Manufacturing Firms," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 49-50, pages 421-456.
    3. Kaiser, Ulrich, 2001. "Moving in and out of financial distress: evidence for newly founded service sector firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-09, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. Franz R. Hahn, 2002. "The Politics of Financial Development. The Case of Austria," WIFO Working Papers 187, WIFO.
    5. Audretsch, David B. & Elston, Julie Ann, 2002. "Does firm size matter? Evidence on the impact of liquidity constraints on firm investment behavior in Germany," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-17, January.
    6. Alexander Karaivanov & Sonia Ruano & Jesús Saurina & Robert Townsend, 2010. "No bank, one bank, several banks: does it matter for investment?," Working Papers 1003, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    7. Hellwig, Martin, 2000. "Corporate Governance and the Financing of Investment for Structural Change," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 00-32, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
    8. Fuss, Catherine & Vermeulen, Philip, 2006. "The response of firms‘ investment and financing to adverse cash flow shocks: the role of bank relationships," Working Paper Series 658, European Central Bank.
    9. Jason G. Cummins & Kevin A. Hassett & Stephen D. Oliner, 2006. "Investment Behavior, Observable Expectations, and Internal Funds," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(3), pages 796-810, June.
    10. Fohlin, Caroline, 1999. "Universal Banking in Pre-World War I Germany: Model or Myth?," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 305-343, October.
    11. Hans Joachim Voth, 2000. "With a bang, not a whimper: Pricking Germany's "stock market bubble" in 1927 and the slide into depression," Economics Working Papers 516, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    12. Davis, E. Philip, 2002. "Institutional investors, corporate governance and the performance of the corporate sector," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 203-229, September.
    13. Elston, Julie Ann & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 2003. "Executive compensation and agency costs in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1391-1410, July.
    14. Audretsch, David B. & Elston, Julie Ann, 2002. "Does firm size matter? Evidence on the impact of liquidity constraints on firm investment behavior in Germany," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-17, January.

    More about this item


    Banks; Germany; Investment; Liquidity;

    JEL classification:

    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill


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