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The Elmar model: output and capacity in imperfectly competitive electricity markets


  • Arie ten Cate


  • Mark Lijesen



With the ongoing liberalization and integration of European energy markets and the increasing worries about security of supply, the need for thorough economic analysis of electricity markets is growing. Elmar is a model for the European electricity market, taking into account imperfect competition through conjectural variations, as well as imperfect international competition due to import capacity restrictions. The model distinguishes between competition on the output market and competition in capacity investments. We find that the least competitive of these determines wholesale prices.

Suggested Citation

  • Arie ten Cate & Mark Lijesen, 2004. "The Elmar model: output and capacity in imperfectly competitive electricity markets," CPB Memorandum 94, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpb:memodm:94

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Iwata, Gyoichi, 1974. "Measurement of Conjectural Variations in Oligopoly," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(5), pages 947-966, September.
    2. Appelbaum, Elie, 1982. "The estimation of the degree of oligopoly power," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 287-299, August.
    3. Helm, D R & Kay, J & Thompson, D J, 1988. "Energy policy and the role of the state in the market for energy," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 9(1), pages 41-61, February.
    4. Green, Richard J & Newbery, David M, 1992. "Competition in the British Electricity Spot Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 929-953, October.
    5. Ford, Andrew, 1999. "Cycles in competitive electricity markets: a simulation study of the western United States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(11), pages 637-658, October.
    6. Klemperer, Paul D & Meyer, Margaret A, 1989. "Supply Function Equilibria in Oligopoly under Uncertainty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1243-1277, November.
    7. Bresnahan, Timothy F, 1981. "Duopoly Models with Consistent Conjectures," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 934-945, December.
    8. Jeroen de Joode & Douwe Kingma & Mark Lijesen, 2004. "Energy policies and risks on energy markets; a cost-benefit analysis," CPB Special Publication 51, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    9. Xavier Vives, 2001. "Oligopoly Pricing: Old Ideas and New Tools," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026272040x, January.
    10. Anette Boom, 2003. "Investments in Electricity Generating Capacity under Different Market Structures and with Endogenously Fixed Demand," CIG Working Papers SP II 2003-01, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
    11. Mark Lijesen, 2004. "Increasing the reliability of electricity production: a cost-benefit analysis," CPB Document 52, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
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    Cited by:

    1. Arie ten Cate, 2009. "A closed-form expression for the optimal capacity of CHP," CPB Memorandum 220, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    2. Machiel Mulder & Victoria Shestalova & Mark Lijesen, 2005. "Vertical separation of the energy-distribution industry; an assessment of several options for unbundling," CPB Document 84, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    3. ten Cate, Arie, 2009. "Solving models with inequalities using standard econometric software," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 2055-2060, April.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L94 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Electric Utilities
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices

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