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La desnutrición en los primeros años de vida: Un análisis regional para Colombia

  • Karina Acosta O.

    ()

Colombia is a country with large regional differences in levels of development, as well as high levels of malnutrition that limit its potential productivity. By using data from the National Survey of Nutritional Status 2010, this paper characterizes the nutritional status of children between 1 and 4 years of age and evaluates access to adequate health care and the particularities of the children in this matter. Among the main results, the importance of the characteristics of mothers, living conditions and prenatal care are salient in the explanation of malnutrition in the aggregate. At the regional level, there are differences, where Bogota and the Caribbean are the regions with higher levels of chronic and global malnutrition respectively. As control measures in the long-term, the mother´s age in Bogota is more important, while in the Caribbean the years of education of the mother are more important. I also emphasize the coverage of vaccines as an important determinant of global malnutrition as measured by weight retardation. RESUMEN: Colombia es un país con grandes diferencias regionales en los niveles de desarrollo. Además, tiene altos niveles de desnutrición que limitan su potencial productivo. Con base en los datos de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional para el 2010, este trabajo caracteriza los estados nutricionales de los niños entre 1 y 4 años y también se analizan el acceso a una salud adecuada y las particularidades de los niños en esta materia. Entre los principales resultados, se percibe la importancia de las características de las madres, las condiciones de vida y una atención prenatal para las madres en la explicación de la desnutrición a nivel agregado. A nivel regional, se encuentra que Bogotá y el Caribe son las regiones con mayores niveles de desnutrición crónica y global, respectivamente. Al respecto, se encontró que las medidas de control de largo plazo a partir de las características maternas, el control de la edad en la que se es madre es más importante en Bogotá, mientras que en el Caribe características como los años de educación cobran mayor importancia. Esto explica el hecho de que el efecto de la educación de la madre se vuelve marginalmente decreciente en la medida en que estas alcanzan un nivel completo de secundaria. Adicionalmente, se resalta también la necesidad del cubrimiento de vacunas para controlar la desnutrición medida como retraso de peso.

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Paper provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL in its series DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL with number 009297.

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Date of creation: 25 Jan 2012
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Handle: RePEc:col:000102:009297
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