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Classifying Exchange Rate Regimes: 15 Years Later

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  • Eduardo Levy Yeyati
  • Federico Sturzenegger

Abstract

Levy Yeyati and Sturzenegger (2001, 2003, 2005) proposed an exchange rate regime classification based on cluster analysis to group countries according to the relative volatility of exchange rates and reserves, thereby shifting the focus from a de jure to de facto approach in the empirical analysis of exchange rate policy. This note extends the classification through 2014 and broadens the country sample, increasing the number of classified country-year observations from 3335 to 5616. Based on this extension, the note documents the main stylized facts in the 2000s, including the behavior of exchange rate policy around the global financial crisis, and the prevalence of floating regimes.

Suggested Citation

  • Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Federico Sturzenegger, 2016. "Classifying Exchange Rate Regimes: 15 Years Later," CID Working Papers 319, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  • Handle: RePEc:cid:wpfacu:319
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    2. Eduardo Levy-Yeyati & Federico Sturzenegger, 2003. "To Float or to Fix: Evidence on the Impact of Exchange Rate Regimes on Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1173-1193, September.
    3. Mr. Atish R. Ghosh & Ms. Anne Marie Gulde & Mr. Jonathan David Ostry & Holger C. Wolf, 1995. "Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?," IMF Working Papers 1995/121, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "Estimating the Effect of Currency Unions on Trade and Output," NBER Working Papers 7857, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Mr. Harald J Anderson & Mr. Romain M Veyrune & Annamaria Kokenyne & Mr. Karl F Habermeier, 2009. "Revised System for the Classification of Exchange Rate Arrangements," IMF Working Papers 2009/211, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Levy Yeyati, Eduardo & Sturzenegger, Federico, 2010. "Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Dani Rodrik & Mark Rosenzweig (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 0, pages 4215-4281, Elsevier.
    7. Ernesto H. Stein & Natalia Salazar & Roberto Steiner & Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla & Marco Bonomo & Juan C. Jaramillo & Hector E. Schamis & Alberto Pascó-Front & Piero Ghezzi & Maria Cristina Terra & José De, 2001. "The Currency Game: Exchange Rate Politics in Latin America," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 77398 edited by Ernesto H. Stein & Jeffry Frieden, February.
    8. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Rose, Andrew K, 2000. "An Estimate of the Effect of Currency Unions on Trade and Output," CEPR Discussion Papers 2631, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. repec:idb:brikps:77398 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1995. "The Mirage of Fixed Exchange Rates," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 73-96, Fall.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cushman, David O. & De Vita, Glauco, 2017. "Exchange rate regimes and FDI in developing countries: A propensity score matching approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 143-163.
    2. Ethan Ilzetzki & Carmen M Reinhart & Kenneth S Rogoff, 2020. "Why is the euro punching below its weight?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 35(103), pages 405-460.
    3. Ethan Ilzetzki & Carmen M Reinhart & Kenneth S Rogoff, 2019. "Exchange Arrangements Entering the Twenty-First Century: Which Anchor will Hold?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 134(2), pages 599-646.
    4. Abouelkhaira, Anass & Gahaz, Taha & Y. Tamsamani, Yasser, 2018. "Choix du régime de change et croissance économique : Une analyse empirique sur des données de panel africaines [Exchange Rate Regime Choice and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis on African Pan," MPRA Paper 84613, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Cécile Couharde & Carl Grekou, 2020. "The Fata Morgana of Exchange Rate Regimes: Reconciling the LYS and the RR classifications," EconomiX Working Papers 2020-32, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    6. Dąbrowski, Marek A., 2019. "A new approach to estimation of actively managed component of foreign exchange reserves," MPRA Paper 95280, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Ben Zeev, Nadav, 2019. "Global credit supply shocks and exchange rate regimes," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 1-32.
    8. Gegenfurtner, Dennis Andreas, 2021. "The causes of Original Sin: An empirical investigation of emerging market and developing countries," IPE Working Papers 174/2021, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    9. Georgiadis, Georgios & Zhu, Feng, 2019. "Monetary policy spillovers, capital controls and exchange rate flexibility, and the financial channel of exchange rates," Working Paper Series 2267, European Central Bank.
    10. Naceur, Sami Ben & Candelon, Bertrand & Lajaunie, Quentin, 2019. "Taming financial development to reduce crises," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-1.
    11. Dudzich Viktar, 2020. "Relationships between exchange rate regime, real exchange rate volatility and currency structure of government bonds in emerging markets," Review of Economic Perspectives, Sciendo, vol. 20(1), pages 3-22, March.
    12. Coulibaly, Dramane & Kempf, Hubert, 2019. "Inflation targeting and the forward bias puzzle in emerging countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 19-33.
    13. Nadav Ben Zeev, 2017. "Exchange Rate Regimes And Sudden Stops," Working Papers 1712, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
    14. Marek A. Dąbrowski & Monika Papież & Sławomir Śmiech, 2020. "Classifying de facto exchange rate regimes of financially open and closed economies: A statistical approach," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(7), pages 821-849, October.
    15. Emmanuel Erem, "undated". "Investigating De Facto And De Jure Exchange Rate Regimes," Review of Socio - Economic Perspectives 202049, Reviewsep.
    16. Dąbrowski, Marek A., 2021. "A novel approach to the estimation of an actively managed component of foreign exchange reserves," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 83-95.
    17. Cécile Couharde & Carl Grekou, 2021. "Better Two Eyes than One: A Synthesis Classification of Exchange Rate Regimes," Working Papers 2021-07, CEPII research center.
    18. Abouelkhair, Anass & Gahaz, Taha & Y. Tamsamani, Yasser, 2018. "Choix du régime de change et croissance économique : Une analyse empirique sur des données de panel africaines [Exchange Rate Regime Choice and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis on African Pan," MPRA Paper 84700, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Diniz-Maganini, Natalia & Rasheed, Abdul A. & Sheng, Hsia Hua, 2021. "Exchange rate regimes and price efficiency: Empirical examination of the impact of financial crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    20. Ilan Goldfajn & Lorenza Martínez & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 2021. "Washington Consensus in Latin America: From Raw Model to Straw Man," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 35(3), pages 109-132, Summer.
    21. Cheng, Ruijie & Rajan, Ramkishen S., 2022. "House price decoupling in East Asia and the Pacific: Trilemma versus dilemma revisited," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 518-539.
    22. Abdelraouf, Nadine & Noureldin, Diaa, 2022. "The impact of the exchange rate regime on the dispersion of the price-change distribution: Evidence from a large panel of countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    23. Dąbrowski, Marek A. & Wróblewska, Justyna, 2020. "Insulating property of the flexible exchange rate regime: A case of Central and Eastern European countries," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 34-49.
    24. Cavallari, Lilia & D'Addona, Stefano, 2017. "Output stabilization in fixed and floating regimes: Does trade of new products matter?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 365-383.
    25. Federico Sturzenegger, 2019. "Macri´s Macro: The meandering road to stability and growth," Working Papers 135, Universidad de San Andres, Departamento de Economia, revised Oct 2019.

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    JEL classification:

    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions

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