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Reserves Over the Transitions to Floating and to Inflation Targeting: Lessons From the Developed World

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  • Fernando Aportela
  • Francisco Gallego
  • Pablo García

Abstract

This paper highlights the evolution of official international reserves in developed countries that transited towards Inflation Targeting (IT) and/or floating exchange rates. We find several results that are of interest to policymakers in emerging countries, such as Brazil, Chile and Mexico, which have revamped their monetary and exchange rate arrangements along those lines. First, the adoption of a floating exchange rate and an IT framework are associated with a persistent 10% to 20% reduction in real official reserves held at the Central Bank. Second, this reduction in official reserves corresponds mainly to a reallocation of international liquidity towards the private financial sector, that accommodates part of the effect on the level or composition of the net foreign asset position of the countries. Third, there is a clear change in the correlation between interest rate differentials and the dynamics of official reserves, strongly supporting the Mundell-Fleming result regarding the exogeneity of money supply under floating exchange rates. Fourth, the latter also shows that, once constraints on exchange rate volatility are removed, the stock of reserves can be determined independently by the Central Bank, according to cost-benefit analysis, without hindering the credibility of the combination of a floating regime and inflation targeting.

Suggested Citation

  • Fernando Aportela & Francisco Gallego & Pablo García, 2003. "Reserves Over the Transitions to Floating and to Inflation Targeting: Lessons From the Developed World," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 211, Central Bank of Chile.
  • Handle: RePEc:chb:bcchwp:211
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    2. Ricardo J. Caballero & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2000. "International Liquidity Management: Sterilization Policy in Illiquid Financial Markets," NBER Working Papers 7740, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Aart Kraay & Norman Loayza & Luis Servén & Jaume Ventura, 2005. "Country Portfolios," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(4), pages 914-945, June.
    4. Manuel R. Agosin & Ernesto Pastén H., 2003. "Corporate Governance in Chile," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 209, Central Bank of Chile.
    5. Roberto Chang & Andrés Velasco, 2000. "Liquidity Crises in Emerging Markets: Theory and Policy," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1999, Volume 14, pages 11-78 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Rodrigo Fuentes & Alejandro Jara & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Matías Tapia & Erika Arraño, 2003. "Efectos de la Nominalización de la Política Monetaria en Chile," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 197, Central Bank of Chile.
    7. Martin Feldstein, 1999. "Self-Protection for Emerging Market Economies," NBER Working Papers 6907, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Ricardo J. Caballero, 2000. "Macroeconomic Volatility in Latin America: A Conceptual Framework and Three Case Studies," ECONOMIA JOURNAL, THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION - LACEA, vol. 0(Fall 2000), pages 31-107, August.
    9. Amartya Lahiri & Carlos A. Végh, 2002. "Living with the Fear of Floating: An Optimal Policy Perspective," NBER Chapters,in: Preventing Currency Crises in Emerging Markets, pages 663-704 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Claudio Soto G. & Alberto Naudon D. & Eduardo López E. & Álvaro Aguirre R., 2004. "About International Reserve Adequacy: The Case of Chile," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 7(3), pages 5-34, December.
    2. Claudio Soto & Alberto Naudon & Eduardo López & Alvaro Aguirre, 2004. "Acerca del Nivel Adecuado de las Reservas Internacionales," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 267, Central Bank of Chile.

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