IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Implied risk-neutral probability density functions from option prices: theory and application

  • Bhupinder Bahra
Registered author(s):

    Due to their forward-looking nature, derivative markets provide monetary authorities with a rich source of information for gauging market sentiment. For example, a futures price gives a widely used measure of the market's views about the future value of an asset, namely its mean or expected value at the maturity date of the futures contract. Moreover, the information available from futures prices can be extended by using option prices to estimate the market's entire probability distribution of the future value of an asset. This paper develops various techniques for estimating the market's probability distribution of the future value of an underlying asset from the prices of options on that asset. It discusses the relative merits and drawbacks of each approach, and shows how our preferred approach can be applied to estimate ex ante probability distributions using LIFFE equity and interest rate options, and Philadelphia Stock Exchange currency options. The paper then illustrates the potential value of this type of information to the policy-maker in assessing monetary conditions and conducting monetary operations. Finally, the paper looks at the limitations in data availability and highlights some areas for future research.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/archive/Documents/historicpubs/workingpapers/1997/wp66.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 66.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: Jul 1997
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:66
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Publications Group Bank of England Threadneedle Street London EC2R 8AH
    Phone: +44 (0)171 601 4030
    Fax: +44 (0)171 601 5196
    Web page: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/
    Email:


    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Garman, Mark B. & Kohlhagen, Steven W., 1983. "Foreign currency option values," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 231-237, December.
    2. Black, Fischer, 1976. "The pricing of commodity contracts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 167-179.
    3. Ritchey, Robert J, 1990. "Call Option Valuation for Discrete Normal Mixtures," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 13(4), pages 285-96, Winter.
    4. Allan M. Malz, 1995. "Using option prices to estimate realignment probabilities in the European Monetary System," Staff Reports 5, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    5. Whaley, Robert E., 1982. "Valuation of American call options on dividend-paying stocks : Empirical tests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 29-58, March.
    6. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The valuation of options for alternative stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 145-166.
    7. Yacine Ait-Sahalia & Andrew W. Lo, 1995. "Nonparametric Estimation of State-Price Densities Implicit in Financial Asset Prices," NBER Working Papers 5351, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Ball, Clifford A. & Torous, Walter N., 1983. "A Simplified Jump Process for Common Stock Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(01), pages 53-65, March.
    9. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
    10. MacBeth, James D & Merville, Larry J, 1980. " Tests of the Black-Scholes and Cox Call Option Valuation Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(2), pages 285-301, May.
    11. Mark Rubinstein., 1994. "Implied Binomial Trees," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-232, University of California at Berkeley.
    12. Banz, Rolf W & Miller, Merton H, 1978. "Prices for State-contingent Claims: Some Estimates and Applications," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 653-72, October.
    13. Neuhaus, Holger, 1995. "The information content of derivatives for monetary policy: Implied volatilities and probabilities," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 1995,03e, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
    14. Jens Carsten Jackwerth and Mark Rubinstein., 1995. "Implied Probability Distributions: Empirical Analysis," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-250, University of California at Berkeley.
    15. King, Mervyn, 1995. "Credibility and Monetary Policy: Theory and Evidence," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 42(1), pages 1-19, February.
    16. Longstaff, Francis A, 1995. "Option Pricing and the Martingale Restriction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1091-1124.
    17. Rubinstein, Mark, 1994. " Implied Binomial Trees," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(3), pages 771-818, July.
    18. Breeden, Douglas T & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1978. "Prices of State-contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 621-51, October.
    19. Ross, Stephen A, 1976. "Options and Efficiency," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 75-89, February.
    20. Ball, Clifford A & Torous, Walter N, 1985. " On Jumps in Common Stock Prices and Their Impact on Call Option Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 155-73, March.
    21. Jarrow, Robert & Rudd, Andrew, 1982. "Approximate option valuation for arbitrary stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 347-369, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:66. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Publications Team)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.