Characterization of the Shapley-Shubik Power Index Without the Efficiency Axiom
We show that the Shapley-Shubik power index on the domain of simple (voting) games can be uniquely characterized without the e¢ ciency axiom. In our axiomatization, the efficiency is replaced by the following weaker require- ment that we term the gain-loss axiom: any gain in power by a player implies a loss for someone else (the axiom does not specify the extent of the loss). The rest of our axioms are standard: transfer (which is the version of additivity adapted for simple games), symmetry or equal treatment, and dummy
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