Violence and Displacement in Civil War. Evidence from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
This paper explores the relationship between violence and displacement during civil war focusing on two different forms of population movements (i.e. incoming and outgoing), and two different forms of violence (i.e. direct and indirect). The paper explores the relationship between displacement and violence at the local level in the context of a civil war fought conventionally using fine-grained data from 1,062 municipalities of the region of Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). First, the paper suggests that exogenous and endogenous to the war factors combine to generate patterns of resettlement. Second, the evidence indicates that, in a civil war context, refugee flows and violence are interrelated in multiple ways: the arrival of internal refugees in a locality promotes the perpetration of direct violence against civilians; this, in turn, triggers the departure of people from the locality when the other group approaches. Third, indirect violence (i.e. bombings) shows to be the most significant factor accounting for external displacement at the local level, suggesting that bombing can serve as a strong signal for civilians of the type of armed group they are facing. Finally, the Spanish case suggests that the demographic changes provoked by displacement, combined with the lethality of the conflict, are likely to have long-term political consequences.
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- Laia Balcells, 2011. "Continuation of Politics by Two Means: Direct and Indirect Violence in Civil War," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 55(3), pages 397-422, June.
- Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2010.
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- Joan Esteban & Massimo Morello & Dominic Rohner, 2010. "Strategic Mass Killings," OxCarre Working Papers 045, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford.
- Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2010. "Strategic Mass Killings," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 826.10, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2010. "Strategic Mass Killings," Working Papers 459, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2010. "Strategic Mass Killings," Economics Working Papers ECO2010/23, European University Institute.
- Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2010. "Strategic mass killings," IEW - Working Papers 486, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Abbey Steele, 2011. "Electing Displacement: Political Cleansing in ApartadÃ³, Colombia," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 55(3), pages 423-445, June.
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