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Continuation of Politics by Two Means: Direct and Indirect Violence in Civil War

Author

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  • Laia Balcells

    (Institute for Economic Analysis-CSIC, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain, and Barcelona Graduate School of Economics, Barcelona, Spain, laia.balcells@iae.csic.es)

Abstract

This article distinguishes between ‘‘direct’’ and ‘‘indirect’’ violence during civil wars. These two types differ in their forms of production: while indirect violence is unilaterally perpetrated by an armed group, direct violence is jointly produced by an armed group and civilians, and it hinges on local collaboration. These differences have consequences for the spatial variation of each of these types: in conventional civil wars, indirect violence is hypothesized to be positively associated with levels of prewar support for the enemy group; in contrast, direct violence is hypothesized to increase with the level of political parity between factions in a locality. The predictions are tested with a novel dataset of 1,710 municipalities in Catalonia and Aragon during the Spanish civil war (1936—1939).

Suggested Citation

  • Laia Balcells, 2011. "Continuation of Politics by Two Means: Direct and Indirect Violence in Civil War," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 55(3), pages 397-422, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:jocore:v:55:y:2011:i:3:p:397-422
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    Cited by:

    1. Nicola Fontana & Tommaso Nannicini & Guido Tabellini, 2017. "Historical Roots of Political Extremism: The Effects of Nazi Occupation of Italy," CESifo Working Paper Series 6838, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Juan Carlos Munoz Mora & José Antonio Fortou & Sandra L Johansson & Jorge Giraldo-Ramirez, 2015. "This land is My Land: Understanding the Relationship between Armed Conflict and Land in Uraba, Colombia," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2015-17, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Savage David A., 2016. "Surviving the Storm: Behavioural Economics in the Conflict Environment," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 22(2), pages 105-129, April.
    4. Zhukov, Yuri M., 2016. "Trading hard hats for combat helmets: The economics of rebellion in eastern Ukraine," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-15.
    5. Ruhe, Constantin, 2012. "Predicting atrocities. Statistically modeling violence against civilians during civil war," NEPS Working Papers 7/2012, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    6. Laia Balcells, 2012. "Violence and Displacement in Civil War. Evidence from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)," Working Papers 603, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    7. Laia Balcells & Abbey Steele, 2012. "Warfare, Political Identities, and Displacement in Spain and Colombia," HiCN Working Papers 124, Households in Conflict Network.
    8. Yuri M. Zhukov, 2014. "Theory of Indiscriminate Violence," Working Paper 365551, Harvard University OpenScholar.
    9. Laia Balcells, 2012. "Violence and displacement. Evidence from the Spanish civil war (1936-1939)," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 896.12, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    competition; violence; identity; civil war; Spain;

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