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Costos del comercio en el procesamiento de los pagos en Colombia

Author

Listed:
  • Carlos A. Arango-Arango

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Yanneth Rocío Betancourt-García

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

Abstract

En Colombia se han logrado importantes avances en el acceso a productos transaccionales ofrecidos por el sistema financiero, sin embargo, su uso aÚn es bajo, y las empresas y los consumidores continúan utilizando de manera intensiva el efectivo. Una de las razones por las cuales los colombianos prefieren el efectivo para realizar sus pagos cotidianos es la limitada aceptación de pagos electrónicos por parte de los comercios, lo que se explica en parte por la percepción que tienen éstos sobre los altos costos relativos de operar con pagos electrónicos versus operar con efectivo. Con el fin de tener una medición integral de los costos privados de los comercios en la aceptación y uso de diferentes instrumentos de pago, el Banco de la República realizó en 2018 una encuesta a comercios que aceptan tanto efectivo como tarjetas de pago. Este documento presenta los resultados de dicha encuesta. Las estimaciones muestran que el efectivo es significativamente menos costoso que las tarjetas débito y crédito a la hora de recibir pagos en los comercios. Dicha estructura de costos se replica para los pagos que realizan los comercios asociados con sus gastos de funcionamiento, para los cuales se encuentra que los costos de los pagos electrónicos llegan a ser más del doble que los de los pagos en efectivo. Así las cosas, para los comercios, operar con efectivo resulta más económico que operar con instrumentos de pago electrónicos. **** ABSTRACT: Although Colombia has made significant progress in the access to transactional products offered by the financial system, their use by the public is still low, and merchants and consumers continue to use cash intensively. One of the reasons why Colombians prefer cash to make their daily payments is the limited acceptance of electronic payments by merchants. This can be partly explained by the merchants’ perception of the high relative costs of operating with electronic payments versus operating with cash. To have a complete measure of merchants’ private costs of acceptance and use of different payment instruments, the Banco de la República conducted a survey in 2018 of merchants who accept both cash and payment cards. This paper presents the main results of the survey. Estimates show that cash is significantly less expensive than debit and credit cards when merchants receive payments. This cost structure is replicated for payments that merchants make for their operating expenses, for which the costs of making electronic payments more than double those of cash payments. Altogether, for merchants, operating with cash results much cheaper than with electronic payment systems.

Suggested Citation

  • Carlos A. Arango-Arango & Yanneth Rocío Betancourt-García, 2020. "Costos del comercio en el procesamiento de los pagos en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 1143, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:1143
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.32468/be.1143
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    Keywords

    Efectivo; instrumentos de pago; procesamiento de pagos; costos del comercio; tarjetas de pago; Cash; payment instruments; processing payments; merchants´ costs; payment cards.;

    JEL classification:

    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • C83 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods
    • D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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