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The Gravity Equation in International Trade

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  • Michele FRATIANNI

    () (Indiana University, Graduate School of Business Bloomington)

Abstract

This chapter offers a selective survey of the gravity equation (GE) in international trade. This equation started in the Sixties as a purely empirical proposition to explain bilateral trade flows, without little or no theoretical underpinnings. At the end of the Seventies, the GE was "legitimized" by a series of theoretical articles that demonstrated that the basic GE form was consistent with various models of trade flows. Empirical applications of GE expanded to cover a variety of issues, such as the impact of regional trade agreements, national borders and currency unions on trade, as well as the use of the equation to sort out the relative merit of alternative trade theories. A new wave of studies is now concentrating on the general equilibrium properties of the GE and finer econometrics points. The renewed interest of the academic profession in the development of the GE is undoubtedly driven by the equation's empirical success.

Suggested Citation

  • Michele FRATIANNI, 2007. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade," Working Papers 307, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
  • Handle: RePEc:anc:wpaper:307
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    Cited by:

    1. Giorgio Fagiolo, 2010. "The international-trade network: gravity equations and topological properties," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 5(1), pages 1-25, June.
    2. Ugo FRATESI, 2010. "The National and International Effects;of Regional Policy Choices: Agglomeration Economies, Peripherality and Territorial Characteristics," Working Papers 344, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    3. Michele Fratianni & Francesco Marchionne, 2011. "The Limits to Integration," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume I, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Johan Fourie & María Santana-Gallego, 2013. "The determinants of African tourism," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 347-366, September.
    5. Shehata, Emad Abd Elmessih, 2011. "الآثار الإقتصادية للتجارة الخارجية بين مصر والكوميسا بإستخدام نموذج الجاذبية للتحليل المكانى
      [Economic Impact for Trade Between Egypt and COMESA By Using Gravity Model of Spatial Analysis]
      ," MPRA Paper 43395, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Dec 2011.
    6. Luca RICCETTI, 2010. "Minimum Tracking Error Volatility," Working Papers 340, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    7. repec:rge:journl:v:5:y:2017:i:2:p:93-107 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Marco Dueñas & Giorgio Fagiolo, 2013. "Modeling the International-Trade Network: a gravity approach," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 8(1), pages 155-178, April.
    9. Michele Fratianni & Francesco Marchionne, 2012. "Trade Costs and Economic Development," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 88(2), pages 137-163, April.
    10. Chang Hoon Oh & Michele Fratianni, 2010. "Do Additional Bilateral Investment Treaties Boost Foreign Direct Investments?," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 43, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    11. Fourie, Johan & Santana-Gallego, María, 2011. "The impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1364-1370.
    12. Burgoa, Rodrigo, 2011. "Consecuencias económicas del enclaustramiento marítimo sobre las exportaciones bolivianas
      [Landlockedness Economic Impact upon Bolivian Exports]
      ," MPRA Paper 59904, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Luca RICCETTI, 2011. "A Copula-GARCH Model for Macro Asset Allocation of a Portfolio with Commodities: an Out-of-Sample Analysis," Working Papers 355, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    14. Campi, Mercedes & Dueñas, Marco, 2016. "Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade of Agricultural Products," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1-18.
    15. Jaume Roselló Nadal & María Santana Gallego, 2012. "Climate change and global international tourism: An evaluation for different scenarios," DEA Working Papers 52, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Departament d'Economía Aplicada.
    16. Aggarwal, Raj & Kearney, Colm & Lucey, Brian, 2012. "Gravity and culture in foreign portfolio investment," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 525-538.
    17. Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz, 2009. "Bilateral trade: a study on SAARC countries," MPRA Paper 36158, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Fabio FIORILLO & Agnese SACCHI, 2010. "I Want to Free-ride. An Opportunistic View on Decentralization Versus Centralization Problem," Working Papers 346, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    19. Martin Falk, 2012. "Determinants of Greenfield Investment in Knowledge Intensive Business Services," FIW Research Reports series IV-002, FIW.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    borders; currency unions; gravity equation; regional trade agreement; trade theories;

    JEL classification:

    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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