GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in Canada
Compared to many modern economies, the overall level of income inequality in Canada has been relatively high since 1980 and grown steadily since. Specifically, the Gini coefficient for household incomes grew from 0.37 in 1980 to 0.45 by 2009. The largest gains in incomes occurred at the very top of the income distribution. Overall, those in the middle of the income distribution were relatively unaffected. There were consequences for the poor, however. Most of the rise in inequality occurred during the 1990s, a period in Canadian history marked by government cuts to spending with the goal of tackling a huge public. Other important contributors to changes in inequality in Canada are a decline in large-scale manufacturing, which has been progressively replaced by lower paying service industry jobs, a decline in government expenditures as a proportion of GDP, and changes to the tax structure that favoured the rich. In short, Canadian governments became increasingly less concerned with social spending and redistribution from the 1990s onwards and focussed instead on decreasing Canada’s huge public debt.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.uva-aias.net
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ross Finnie & Ian Irvine, 2011. "The Redistributional Impact of Canada's Employment Insurance Program, 1992-2002," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 37(2), pages 201-218, June.
- Myles, John, 2000. "The Maturation of Canada's Retirement Income System: Income Levels, Income Inequality and Low Income Among the Elderly," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000147e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Emmanuel Saez & Michael R. Veall, 2003.
"The Evolution of High Incomes in Canada, 1920-2000,"
NBER Working Papers
9607, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Emmanuel Saez & Michael R. Veall, 2003. "The Evolution of High Incomes in Canada, 1920-2000," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 99, McMaster University.
- Emmanuel Saez & Michael R. Veall, 2003. "The Evolution of High Incomes in Canada, 1920-2000," Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population Research Reports 382, McMaster University.
- Dinardo, J. & Fortin, N.M. & Lemieux, T., 1994.
"Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach,"
Cahiers de recherche
9406, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- DiNardo, John & Fortin, Nicole M & Lemieux, Thomas, 1996. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1001-44, September.
- John DiNardo & Nicole M. Fortin & Thomas Lemieux, 1995. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," NBER Working Papers 5093, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dinardo, J. & Fortin, N.M. & Lemieux, T., 1994. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: a Semiparametric Approach," Cahiers de recherche 9406, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Nidardo, J. & Fortin, N. & Lemieux, T., 1994. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Papers 93-94-15, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Daphne Gottlieb Taras & Allen Ponak, 2001. "Mandatory Agency Shop Laws As an Explanation of Canada-U.S. Union Density Divergence ," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 22(3), pages 541-566, July.
- Calmès, Christian & Liu, Ying, 2009.
"Financial structure change and banking income: A Canada-U.S. comparison,"
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,
Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 128-139, February.
- Christian Calmès & Ying Liu, 2005. "Financial Structure Change and Banking Income: a Canada-U.S. Comparison," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp0302005, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
- Michele Campolieti & Chris Riddell & Sara Slinn, 2007. "Certification Delay under Elections and Card-Check Procedures: Empirical Evidence from Canada," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 61(1), pages 32-58, October.
- Steven D. Levitt, 2004. "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(1), pages 163-190, Winter.
- Daniel BÃ©land & John Myles, 2005. "Stasis Amidst Change: Canadian Pension Reform in an Age of Retrenchment," Chapters, in: Ageing and Pension Reform Around the World, chapter 12 Edward Elgar.
- Ronald D. Kneebone & Katherine G. White, 2009. "Fiscal Retrenchment and Social Assistance in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 35(1), pages 21-40, March.
- Gunnell, David & Middleton, Nicos & Whitley, Elise & Dorling, Daniel & Frankel, Stephen, 2003. "Why are suicide rates rising in young men but falling in the elderly?--a time-series analysis of trends in England and Wales 1950-1998," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 595-611, August.
- Mishra, Sandeep & Lalumière, Martin, 2009. "Is the crime drop of the 1990s in Canada and the USA associated with a general decline in risky and health-related behavior?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 39-48, January.
- Paul Martin, 1996. "The Canadian experience in reducing budget deficits and debt," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q I, pages 11-25.
- J. Stephen Ferris & Stanley L. Winer, 2007. "Just How Much Bigger Is Government in Canada? A Comparative Analysis of the Size and Structure of the Public Sectors in Canada and the United States, 19292004," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 33(2), pages 173-206, June.
- Emmanuel Saez & Michael R. Veall, 2005. "The Evolution of High Incomes in Northern America: Lessons from Canadian Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 831-849, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aia:ginicr:canada. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiemer Salverda)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.