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Arms Industries, Arms Trade, and Developing Countries

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  • Brauer, Jurgen

Abstract

This chapter discusses developing (non-high income) states' participation in the production and trade of parts or whole units of major conventional weapons, their integration into a transnationalized global arms industry, and the underlying industrial prerequisites that make that participation and integration possible. Drawing on the vertical boundaries of the firm literature, the chapter provides a theory that explains some aspects of post-Cold War shifts in the composition and location of arms production. The chapter further discusses characteristics of the small arms and light weapons industry. A highly lethal industry with far-ranging adverse effects on public health, education, and institutions of law and order and therefore on work incentives and investment climate, it is suggested that the horizontal boundaries of the firm literature, especially the product-cycle hypothesis, may explain certain features of the spacial and temporal diffusion of small arms production, technology, and supply. Newly emerging literature on small-arms demand is also discussed. Furthermore, the chapter examines the widening presence of non-high income states in the production of weapons of mass destruction. Vertical contracting and R&D/patent-race literatures are applied to the case of nuclear weapons. Major conclusions of the chapter include that data sources are poor, that arms production and trade theory is underdeveloped, and that although non-proliferation regimes may have slowed weapons proliferation, they have failed to stop it. We observe industry entry in all weapons categories and in future may expect to see further increases in industry participation by non-high income states, should they choose to do so. This is the natural consequence of the gradual development of non-high incomes states' production capacities. We also observe, however, that states sometimes exit the arms industry or choose not to participate in it, despite their capacity to do so.

Suggested Citation

  • Brauer, Jurgen, 2007. "Arms Industries, Arms Trade, and Developing Countries," Handbook of Defense Economics, Elsevier.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:hdechp:2-30
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Goodness C. Aye & Mehmet Balcilar & John P. Dunne & Rangan Gupta & Reneé van Eyden, 2014. "Military expenditure, economic growth and structural instability: a case study of South Africa," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(6), pages 619-633, December.
    2. Florian Johannsen & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, "undated". "Political Determinants of the Extensive and Intensive Margins of International Arms Transfers," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 228, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Leitão, Nuno Carlos & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2013. "Should Portuguese economy invest in defense spending? A revisit," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 805-815.
    4. Tiwari, Aviral & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does Defence Spending Stimulate Economic Growth in India?," MPRA Paper 30880, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Apr 2011.
    5. Jülide Yildirim & Nadir Öcal, 2016. "Military expenditures, economic growth and spatial spillovers," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 87-104, February.
    6. Emmanuel Athanassiou & Christos Kollias & Stavros Zografakis, 2002. "The Effects of Defence Spending Reductions: A CGE Estimation of the Foregone Peace Dividend in the Case of Greece," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 109-119.
    7. Dimitrios PAPARAS & Christian RICHTER & Alexandros PAPARAS, 2016. "Military Spending and Economic Growth in Greece and the Arms Race between Greece and Turkey," Journal of Economics Library, KSP Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 38-56, March.
    8. Vincenzo Bove & Claudio Deiana & Roberto Nisticò, 2016. "Global Arms Trade and Oil Dependence," CSEF Working Papers 452, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 10 Feb 2018.
    9. J. Paul Dunne & Ron P. Smith, 2016. "The evolution of concentration in the arms market," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, EPS Publishing, vol. 11(1), pages 12-17, April.
    10. repec:seb:journl:v:15:y:2017:i:2:p:103-125 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Julide Yildirim & Selami Sezgin, 2003. "Military expenditure and employment in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 129-139.
    12. Pulido San Román, Antonio & Pérez García, Julián, 2006. "Lawrence R. Klein and Applied Economics/Lawrence R. Klein y la economía aplicada," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 24, pages 43-94, Abril.
    13. J. Paul Dunne † & Sam Perlo-Freeman ‡ & Aylin Soydan §, 2004. "Military expenditure and debt in small industrialised economies: A panel analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 125-132, April.
    14. Smith, Ron P. & Tasiran, Ali, 2010. "Random coefficients models of arms imports," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1522-1528, November.
    15. Jurgen Brauer & John Paul Dunne, 2011. "Arms Trade Offsets: What Do We Know?," Chapters,in: The Handbook on the Political Economy of War, chapter 13 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    16. Ünal Töngür & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2016. "The impact of military spending and income inequality on economic growth in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 433-452, June.
    17. Killicoat, Phillip, 2007. "Weaponomics : the global market for assault rifles," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4202, The World Bank.
    18. Christos Kollias & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2011. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Conflict: Three Case Studies," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Conflict, chapter 14 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. Jurgen Brauer & J Paul Dunne, 2005. "Arms Trade Offsets and Development," Working Papers 0504, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
    20. Töngür, Ünal & Elveren, Adem, 2013. "The Impact of Military Spending and Income Inequality on Economic Growth in Turkey, 1963-2008," EY International Congress on Economics I (EYC2013), October 24-25, 2013, Ankara, Turkey 251, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association.
    21. Kimbambu Tsasa Vangu, Jean - Paul, 2012. "Analyse de la Relation Guerres Civiles et Croissance Économique
      [Civil Wars and Economic Growth in DRC]
      ," MPRA Paper 42424, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Feb 2012.
    22. Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013. "Does Defence Spending Impede Economic Growth? Cointegration And Causality Analysis For Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 105-120, April.
    23. Alper Aslan, 2012. "The Relationship Between Military Spending and Black Market Premium in Greece: An ARDL Approach," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 19(2), pages 155-161, November.
    24. Dietrich Fischer & Jurgen Brauer, 2003. "Twenty questions for peace economics: A research agenda," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 223-236.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Defense in a Globalized World;

    JEL classification:

    • H56 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - National Security and War

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