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Roma in an Expanding Europe : Breaking the Poverty Cycle


  • Dena Ringold
  • Mitchell A. Orenstein
  • Erika Wilkens


This publication brings together original sociological research, evaluations of programs, and the first comparative cross-country household survey on ethnicity and poverty. It finds that Roma poverty is multi-faceted and can only be addressed by a comprehensive policy approach that attends to all dimensions of Roma social exclusion. It proposes an inclusive policy approach which would expand and promote Roma involvement and participation in mainstream society, while maintaining cultural and social identity and autonomy. Policy mechanisms include those which make existing policies more accessible to Roma and identifying areas where targeted initiatives are needed.

Suggested Citation

  • Dena Ringold & Mitchell A. Orenstein & Erika Wilkens, 2005. "Roma in an Expanding Europe : Breaking the Poverty Cycle," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14869, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:14869

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. van de Walle, Dominique & Gunewardena, Dileni, 2001. "Sources of ethnic inequality in Viet Nam," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 177-207, June.
    2. World Bank & Foundation S.P.A.C.E. & INEKO & The Open Society Institute, 2002. "Poverty and Welfare of Roma in the Slovak Republic," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15200.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kirwan Gloria & Jacob Deirdre, 2016. "Addressing barriers to healthcare access for Roma: A community development approach," Administration, De Gruyter Open, vol. 64(2), pages 157-177, August.
    2. Joanna Kostka, 2015. "Implementation of Roma Inclusion Policies: Why Defining the Problem Matters," Social Inclusion, Cogitatio Press, vol. 3(5), pages 78-89.
    3. Elias Hemelsoet & Pauwel Van Pelt, 2015. "Questioning the Policy Framing of Roma in Ghent, Belgium: Some Implications of Taking an Insider Perspective Seriously," Social Inclusion, Cogitatio Press, vol. 3(5), pages 148-160.
    4. Dena Ringold & Leszek Kasek, 2007. "Social Assistance in the New EU Member States : Strengthening Performance and Labor Market Incentives," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6744.
    5. Lucia Mýtna Kureková, 2015. "Policy Puzzles with Roma Employment in Slovakia," Discussion Papers 34, Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI).
    6. Ramón Cobo-Reyes & Natalia Jiménez & Angel Solano, 2006. "Inequality aversion among gypsies: a field investigation," ThE Papers 06/06, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
    7. Pavel Ciaian & d'Artis Kancs, 2016. "Causes of the Social and Economic Marginalisation: The Role of Social Mobility Barriers for Roma," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 2016/03, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
    8. Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete & Precious Zikhali, 2011. "Social exclusion and labour market outcomes: evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 10(3), pages 233-250, September.
    9. Laetitia Duval & François-Charles Wolff, 2016. "“I even met happy gypsies”," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 24(4), pages 727-764, October.
    10. Michal Vacecka, 2011. "Social and Labor Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities in Slovakia," Chapters,in: Ethnic Diversity in European Labor Markets, chapter 11 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. repec:spr:ijphth:v:62:y:2017:i:7:d:10.1007_s00038-017-0954-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Juan F. Gamella & Elisa Martín Carrasco-Muñoz, 2017. "The decline of infant and child mortality among Spanish Gitanos or Calé (1871−2005): A microdemographic study in Andalusia," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 36(33), pages 945-988, March.
    13. Niall O'Higgins, 2010. "“It's not that I'm a racist, it's that they are Roma”: Roma discrimination and returns to education in South Eastern Europe," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 163-187, May.
    14. Margaret Grosh & Carlo del Ninno & Emil Tesliuc & Azedine Ouerghi, 2008. "For Protection and Promotion : The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6582.


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