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Surplus Liquidity: Implications for Central Banks

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  • Joe Ganley

Abstract

Surplus liquidity occurs where cashflows into the banking system persistently exceed withdrawals of liquidity from the market by the central bank. This is reflected in holdings of reserves in excess of the central bank's required reserves. The occurrence of surplus liquidity is widespread, covering many countries around the world. Historically, it has been observed most often in Soviet, wartime and transitional countries. Transitional economies, for example, often attract large capital inflows as the economy opens and undergoes privatisation. The effect of these inflows on liquidity is often magnified by central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market when there is upward pressure on the domestic currency. In the wartime economy, consumption is restricted and large amounts of involuntary savings accumulate until goods and services eventually become more widely available. Soviet-style economies have displayed widespread shortages and administered prices. This creates a situation of repressed inflation, whereby prices are too low relative to the money stock, leaving individuals with excess real balances. The importance of surplus liquidity for central banks is threefold and lies in its potential to influence: (1) the transmission mechanism of monetary policy; (2) the conduct of central bank intervention in the money market, and (3) the central bank's balance sheet and income.

Suggested Citation

  • Joe Ganley, 2004. "Surplus Liquidity: Implications for Central Banks," Lectures, Centre for Central Banking Studies, Bank of England, number 3.
  • Handle: RePEc:ccb:lectur:3
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    File URL: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/education/ccbs/ls/pdf/lshb03.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Aynaoui, Karim El, 2010. "Excess liquidity, bank pricing rules, and monetary policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 923-933, May.
    2. Primus, Keyra, 2017. "Excess reserves, monetary policy and financial volatility," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 153-168.
    3. Magdalena Petrovska & Ljupka Georgievska, 2015. "Alternative indicator of monetary policy stance for Macedonia," IFC Bulletins chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Indicators to support monetary and financial stability analysis: data sources and statistical methodologies, volume 39 Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Muhammad, Omer & de Haan, Jakob & Scholtens, Bert, 2014. "Impact of Interbank Liquidity on Monetary Transmission Mechanism: A Case Study of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 56161, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Muhammad Omer & Jakob De Haan & Bert Scholtens, 2015. "An empirical analysis of excess interbank liquidity: a case study of Pakistan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(44), pages 4754-4776, March.
    6. Magdalena Petrovska & Ljupka Georgievska, 2015. "Alternative Indicator of Monetary Policy Stance for Macedonia," Working Papers 2015-01, National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia.
    7. Nguyen, Vu Hong Thai & Boateng, Agyenim, 2015. "Bank excess reserves in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 158-166.
    8. Karel Bruna & Jaroslava Durcáková, 2012. "Banking system liquidity absorption and monetary base backing in the context of exchange rate policy in the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 257-275, October.

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    Keywords

    Surplus Liquidity; Implications; Central Banks;

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