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Imported inputs and Egyptian exports: Exploring the links


  • Parra, María Dolores
  • Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada


This paper is the first to explore the links between exporting and importing activities of Egyptian firms using panel data over the period from 2003 to 2007. The main aim is twofold. Firstly, the authors report regression results indicating that firms that both export and import are the most productive, followed by importing-, exporting-only firms and non-traders. Secondly, they estimate the determinants of the extensive and intensive margins of exports and imports using dynamic panel-Probit and panel-Tobit models in combination with the method proposed by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (Avoiding biased versions of Wooldridge's simple solution to the initial conditions problem, 2013) to tackle the initial conditions problem. The results show that both activities present a high degree of hysteresis, which is higher for imports than for exports pointing to the existence of sunk costs in both activities. Moreover, past productivity does affect the extensive margin of imports, but not of exports and the initial condition status is also only relevant for the import side. Similar outcomes are obtained for the intensive margin of trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Parra, María Dolores & Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada, 2015. "Imported inputs and Egyptian exports: Exploring the links," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 9, pages 1-31.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ifweej:201538

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Amit Kumar Khandelwal & Nina Pavcnik & Petia Topalova, 2010. "Imported Intermediate Inputs and Domestic Product Growth: Evidence from India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 125(4), pages 1727-1767.
    2. Sami Bensassi & Laura Márquez-Ramos & Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, 2012. "Economic Integration and the Two Margins of Trade: The Impact of the Barcelona Process on North African Countries' Exports," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 21(2), pages 228-265, March.
    3. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2005. "Simple solutions to the initial conditions problem in dynamic, nonlinear panel data models with unobserved heterogeneity," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(1), pages 39-54.
    4. Joachim Wagner, 2007. "Exports and Productivity: A Survey of the Evidence from Firm-level Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1), pages 60-82, January.
    5. Fredrik SJÖHOLM & Sadayuki TAKII, 2008. "Foreign Networks And Exports: Results From Indonesian Panel Data," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 46(4), pages 428-446.
    6. Tarlok Singh, 2010. "Does International Trade Cause Economic Growth? A Survey," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(11), pages 1517-1564, November.
    7. Murat Şeker, 2012. "Importing, Exporting, and Innovation in Developing Countries," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 299-314, May.
    8. Kasahara, Hiroyuki & Rodrigue, Joel, 2008. "Does the use of imported intermediates increase productivity? Plant-level evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 106-118, August.
    9. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Why Some Firms Export," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 561-569, May.
    10. Aw, Bee Yan & Chung, Sukkyun & Roberts, Mark J, 2000. "Productivity and Turnover in the Export Market: Micro-level Evidence from the Republic of Korea and Taiwan (China)," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 65-90, January.
    11. De Loecker, Jan, 2007. "Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
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    More about this item


    firm level data; Egypt; internationalization; imports; exports; intermediates;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade


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