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Western hemispheric trade agreements and sustainability: Lesson from butterflies, hummingbirds, and salty anchovies


  • Van V. Miller

    (Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA)

  • Charles T. Crespy

    (Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA)

  • Kurt H. Loess

    (East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA)

  • José A. Renau

    (Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA)


The relationship between international commerce and sustainable development is the subject of much controversy that is exacerbated by geographic boundaries that are co-jointly developed, shaped, and sustained by regional trade agreements. The outcomes of three Americas trade agreements - NAFTA, CAFTA, and USPTPA - are analyzed across three dimensions: economic, ecological, and labor. The three dimensions collectively form for each trade region a specific ECOL niche that is concurrently subject to national variation. We propose and find that low-ECOL niches in the Americas appear to attract more foreign trade with investment. Nevertheless, this tentative finding seems not to hold for those corporations that seek out strong ECOL niche countries like Costa Rica. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Van V. Miller & Charles T. Crespy & Kurt H. Loess & José A. Renau, 2010. "Western hemispheric trade agreements and sustainability: Lesson from butterflies, hummingbirds, and salty anchovies," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 220-228.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:sustdv:v:18:y:2010:i:4:p:220-228
    DOI: 10.1002/sd.491

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2002. "Determinants of FDI in developing countries: has globalization changed the rules of the game?," Kiel Working Papers 1122, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    5. John H Dunning, 1988. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(1), pages 1-31, March.
    6. Andreas Waldkirch & Munisamy Gopinath, 2008. "Pollution Control and Foreign Direct Investment in Mexico: An Industry-Level Analysis," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 41(3), pages 289-313, November.
    7. Marcelo Braga Nonnemberg & Mario Jorge Cardoso de Mendonça, 2004. "The Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In Developing Countries," Anais do XXXII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 32nd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 061, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
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    Cited by:

    1. Donald I. Lyons & Pauline Deutz, 2010. "Regional sustainable development: Making development work in politically contingent space," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 183-186.

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