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Estimating the Return to Endogenous Schooling Decisions via Conditional Second Moments

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  • Roger Klein
  • Francis Vella

Abstract

This paper employs conditional second moments to identify the impact of education in wage regressions where education is treated as endogenous. This approach avoids the use of instrumental variables in a setting where instruments are frequently not available. We employ this methodology to estimate the returns to schooling for a sample of Australian workers. We find that accounting for the endogeneity of education in this manner increases the estimated return to education from 6 percent to 10 percent.

Suggested Citation

  • Roger Klein & Francis Vella, 2009. "Estimating the Return to Endogenous Schooling Decisions via Conditional Second Moments," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:44:y:2009:i4:p1047-1065
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Leigh, Andrew & Ryan, Chris, 2008. "Estimating returns to education using different natural experiment techniques," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 149-160, April.
    2. Miller, Paul W & Mulvey, Charles & Martin, Nick, 1995. "What Do Twins Studies Reveal about the Economic Returns to Education? A Comparison of Australian and U.S. Findings," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 586-599, June.
    3. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Keueger, 1991. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(4), pages 979-1014.
    4. Ashenfelter, Orley & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Estimates of the Economic Returns to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1157-1173, December.
    5. Rummery, Sarah & Vella, Francis & Verbeek, Marno, 1999. "Estimating the returns to education for Australian youth via rank-order instrumental variables," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 491-507, November.
    6. Vella, Francis & Gregory, R. G., 1996. "Selection bias and human capital investment: Estimating the rates of return to education for young males," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 197-219, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Livini Donath & Oliver Morrissey & Trudy Owens, 2021. "Does the pay period matter in estimating returns to schooling? Evidence from East Africa," Discussion Papers 2021-01, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    2. Nils Saniter, 2012. "Estimating Heterogeneous Returns to Education in Germany via Conditional Heteroskedasticity," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 458, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
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    4. Millimet, Daniel L. & Roy, Jayjit, 2011. "Three New Empirical Tests of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis When Environmental Regulation is Endogenous," IZA Discussion Papers 5911, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    9. Lídia Farré & Roger Klein & Francis Vella, 2013. "A parametric control function approach to estimating the returns to schooling in the absence of exclusion restrictions: an application to the NLSY," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 111-133, February.
    10. Daniel J. Lewis, 2022. "Robust Inference in Models Identified via Heteroskedasticity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 104(3), pages 510-524, May.
    11. Chau, Tak Wai, 2015. "Identification through Heteroscedasticity: What If We Have the Wrong Form of Heteroscedasticity?," MPRA Paper 65888, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Bomin Jiang & Roberto Rigobon & Munther A. Dahleh, 2020. "Contingent Linear Financial Networks," NBER Working Papers 26814, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Saniter, Nils, 2012. "Estimating Heterogeneous Returns to Education in Germany via Conditional Second Moments," VfS Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62050, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Mallick, Debdulal & Zhang, Quanda, 2019. "The Effect of Financial Inclusion on Household Welfare in China," MPRA Paper 95786, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Vinod Mishra & Russell Smyth, 2012. "Returns to Schooling in Urban China: New Evidence Using Heteroskedasticity Restrictions to Obtain Identification Without Exclusion Restrictions," Monash Economics Working Papers 33-12, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    16. Figueirêdo, Erik Alencar de & Nogueira, Lauro César Bezerra & Santana, Fernanda Leite, 2014. "Igualdade de Oportunidades: Analisando o papel das circunstâncias no desempenho do ENEM," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil), vol. 68(3), September.
    17. Buscha, Franz & Dickson, Matt, 2015. "The Wage Returns to Education over the Life-Cycle: Heterogeneity and the Role of Experience," IZA Discussion Papers 9596, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Denny, Kevin & Oppedisano, Veruska, 2013. "The surprising effect of larger class sizes: Evidence using two identification strategies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 57-65.
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    20. Asadul Islam & Faridul Islam & Chau Nguyen, 2017. "Skilled Immigration, Innovation, and the Wages of Native-Born Americans," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(3), pages 459-488, July.
    21. Wang, Le, 2012. "Economic transition and college premium in urban China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 238-252.
    22. James O’Brien, 2020. "Public Works and Children’s School Attendance: Evidence from Rural India," Review of Development and Change, , vol. 25(2), pages 193-214, December.
    23. Martine Mariotti & Juergen Meinecke, 2011. "Bounds on the Return to Education in Australia using Ability Bias," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2011-551, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
    24. Kahlil Philander & Susan J. Roe, 2013. "The Impact of Wage Rate Growth on Tourism Competitiveness," Tourism Economics, , vol. 19(4), pages 823-834, August.
    25. A. Bergeaud & G. Cette & R. Lecat, 2016. "The role of production factor quality and technology diffusion in 20th century productivity growth," Working papers 588, Banque de France.

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