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Using Establishment Size to Measure the Impact of Title VII and Affirmative Action

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  • William J. Carrington
  • Kristin McCue
  • Brooks Pierce

Abstract

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and Affirmative Action apply most forcefully to large employers. The laws' focus on large employers implies that if Title VII and Affirmative Action were effective, then large employers should have increased their relative employment of blacks and women in the years following their institution. We show blacks and women did, in fact, move to larger employers after 1964. We also estimate that the move to large employers accounted for roughly 15 percent of aggregate black/white wage convergence over the 1965-80 period. Thus, whatever, its cause, blacks' movement to large employers was an important part of black economic progress after 1964.

Suggested Citation

  • William J. Carrington & Kristin McCue & Brooks Pierce, 2000. "Using Establishment Size to Measure the Impact of Title VII and Affirmative Action," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(3), pages 503-523.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:35:y:2000:i:3:p:503-523
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark, 2008. "Workplace Segregation in the United States: Race, Ethnicity, and Skill," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 459-477, August.
    2. repec:aea:jeclit:v:55:y:2017:i:3:p:789-865 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    4. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1996. "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 65-86.
    5. Daniel L. Millimet, 2003. "Environmental Abatement Costs and Establishment Size," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 21(3), pages 281-296, July.
    6. David Neumark & Harry Holzer, 2000. "Assessing Affirmative Action," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 483-568, September.
    7. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2003. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 106-144, January.
    8. Vladimir Hlasny, 2014. "A Hierarchical Process of Applicant Screening by Korean Employers," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 246-270, September.
    9. Jinyong Hahn & Petra Todd & Wilbert Van der Klaauw, 1999. "Evaluating the Effect of an Antidiscrimination Law Using a Regression-Discontinuity Design," NBER Working Papers 7131, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Holzer, Harry J. & Reaser, Jess, 2000. "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 365-387, November.
    11. Michael A. Stoll & Steven Raphael & Harry J. Holzer, 2001. "Why Are Black Employers More Likely to Hire African Americans than White Employers?," JCPR Working Papers 228, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    12. Fidan Ana Kurtulus, 2015. "The Impact of Affirmative Action on the Employment of Minorities and Women over Three Decades: 1973-2003," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 15-221, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    13. Julie L. Hotchkiss, 2004. "A Closer Look at the Employment Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(4).
    14. H. J. Holzer, "undated". "Why do small establishments hire fewer blacks than large ones," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1119-97, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.

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