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Success Is Something to Sneeze At: Influenza Mortality in Cities that Participate in the Super Bowl

Author

Listed:
  • Charles Stoecker

    () (Tulane University)

  • Nicholas J. Sanders

    () (College of William and Mary)

  • Alan Barreca

    () (Tulane University)

Abstract

Using county-level Vital Statistics of the United States data from 1974 to 2009, we employ a differences-in-differences framework comparing influenza mortality rates in Bowl-participating counties to nonparticipants. We estimate having a local team in the Super Bowl caused an 18 percent increase in influenza deaths for the population over age 65. Results are most pronounced in years when the dominant influenza strain is more virulent, or when the Super Bowl occurs closer to the peak of influenza season. We find no impacts on influenza mortality in hosting cities. Our findings suggest mitigating transmission at gatherings related to large spectator events could have substantial returns for public health.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles Stoecker & Nicholas J. Sanders & Alan Barreca, 2016. "Success Is Something to Sneeze At: Influenza Mortality in Cities that Participate in the Super Bowl," American Journal of Health Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(1), pages 125-143, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:amjhec:v:2:y:2016:i:1:p:125-143
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    File URL: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1162/AJHE_a_00036
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    Cited by:

    1. Markowitz, Sara & Nesson, Erik & Robinson, Joshua J., 2019. "The effects of employment on influenza rates," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 286-295.
    2. J. James Reade & Dominik Schreyer & Carl Singleton, 2020. "Echoes: what happens when football is played behind closed doors?," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-14, Department of Economics, Reading University.
    3. Viviane Sanfelice, 2020. "Mosquito-Borne Disease and Newborn Health," DETU Working Papers 2001, Department of Economics, Temple University.
    4. Matthew Olczak & J. James Reade & Matthew Yeo, 2020. "Mass Outdoor Events and the Spread of an Airborne Virus: English Football and Covid-19," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-19, Department of Economics, Reading University.
    5. Carrieri, V.; & Jones, A.M.; & Principe, F.;, 2018. "Health shocks and labour market outcomes: evidence from professional football," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 18/01, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    6. J. James Reade & Carl Singleton, 2020. "Demand for Public Events in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of European Football," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-09, Department of Economics, Reading University.
    7. J. James Reade & Dominik Schreyer & Carl Singleton, 2020. "Eliminating supportive crowds reduces referee bias," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-25, Department of Economics, Reading University.
    8. Vincenzo Carrieri & Andrew M. Jones & Francesco Principe, 2020. "Productivity Shocks and Labour Market Outcomes for Top Earners: Evidence from Italian Serie A," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 82(3), pages 549-576, June.
    9. Pichler, Stefan & Ziebarth, Nicolas R., 2019. "Reprint of: The pros and cons of sick pay schemes: Testing for contagious presenteeism and noncontagious absenteeism behavior," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 86-104.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    influenza mortality; Super Bowl; flu; influenza; public health;

    JEL classification:

    • I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

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