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Regional Innovation Systems: Theory, Empirics and Policy

Author

Listed:
  • Bjorn Asheim
  • Helen Lawton Smith
  • Christine Oughton

Abstract

Asheim B. T., Lawton Smith H. and Oughton C. Regional innovation systems: theory, empirics and policy, Regional Studies. Interest in regional innovation systems has grown significantly over the past three decades driven partly by advances in theoretical analysis, partly by the growing interest in innovation as a source of competitive advantage, and partly by the need for new policies to address regional inequalities and divergence. This article explores the elements and characteristics that exemplify the regional innovation systems approach. It provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems paradigm and aims to shed light on a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based questions remain unanswered. It outlines and assesses the major strands in recent theoretical and empirical debates and discusses how they might be developed to contribute to the further advancement of the regional innovation systems literature. Three interrelated questions form the key themes around which the article is structured. The first concerns the very nature of the system itself. The second concerns the boundaries of industrial districts, clusters and regional innovation systems, and the role of cognitive frontiers, knowledge transfer and learning. The third relates to the central role of knowledge and learning in clusters and regional innovation systems and in particular to the role and functioning of the labour market. These three cross-cutting themes separately and collectively provide new theoretical, empirical and policy insights; they also raise other questions which are intended to stimulate much future research. Asheim B. T., Lawton Smith H. and Oughton C. 区域创新系统:理论、实践以及政策,区域研究。 对区域创新系统的关注在过去的 30 年内得到显著提高,这部分归因于理论分析的进步,也由于创新是竞争优势的源头, 同时也基于新政策强调区域不公平以及区域差异的需求。本文考察了对区域创新系统 方法进行分析的要素以及特征。文章通过对区域创新系统范式的评价以及综合分析为 理论、实践以及政策领域做出相应的贡献。研究概述并评价了目前理论及实践研究中 主要的分支,讨论了他们在区域创新系统研究中的下一步发展方向。文章围绕三个理 论核心展开。首先考虑系统本身的性质。其次考虑产业区、集群以及区域创新系统的 边界,认知前沿、知识转换以及学习过程的作用。第三是知识与学习在集群及区域创 新系统尤其是劳动力市场职能中的核心作用。上述三类跨界的主题各自或者整合地提 供了新的理论、实践以及政策视角,同时也指出未来研究中需要注意的问题。 区域创新系统 产业区 集群 知识与学习 劳动力市场 Asheim B. T., Lawton Smith H. et Oughton C. Les systemes d'innovation regionaux: la theorie, l'empiricisme et la politique, Regional Studies. L'interet pour les systemes d'innovation regionaux a augmente sensiblement pendant les trois dernieres decennies, conduit en partie par les progres dans l'analyse theorique, en partie par l'interet croissant pour l'innovation comme source de l'avantage competitif, et en partie par la necessite des politiques nouvelles pour aborder les ecarts et les divergences regionaux. Cet article examine les elements et les caracteristiques qui illustrent les facons d'aborder les systemes d'innovation regionaux. On evalue et synthetise le paradigme des systemes d'innovation regionaux et eclaircit un nombre de questions theoriques, empiriques et de politiques auxquelles il faut toujours repondre. On esquisse et evalue les principaux fils des debats theoriques et empiriques recents et on discute comment on pourrait les developper afin de contribuer au progres de la documentation sur les systemes d'innovation regionaux. Trois questions interdependantes constituent les themes cles a partir desquels on structure l'article. Le premier traite de la nature meme du systeme. Le deuxieme concerne les limites des districts industriels, des clusters et des systemes d'innovation regionaux, et le role des frontieres cognitives, du transfert de la connaissance et de l'apprentissage. Le troisieme se rapporte au role primordial de la connaissance et de l'apprentissage dans les clusters et les systemes d'innovation regionaux, et en particulier au role et au fonctionnement du marche du travail. Ces trois themes interdependants fournissent separement et collectivement de nouvels apercus theoriques, empiriques et de politique; ils posent aussi d'autres questions qui visent a encourager beaucoup de recherche future. Systemes d'innovation regionaux Districts industriels Clusters Connaissance et apprentissage Marches du travail Asheim B. T., Lawton Smith H. und Oughton C. Regionale Innovationssysteme: Theorie, Empirie und Politik, Regional Studies. In den letzten drei Jahrzehnten ist das Interesse an regionalen Innovationssystemen stark gewachsen, was teils auf die Fortschritte bei der theoretischen Analyse, teils auf das wachsende Interesse an der Innovation als Quelle von Wettbewerbsvorteilen und teils auf den Bedarf an neuen Politiken zum Ausgleich von regionalen Ungleichgewichten und Divergenzen zuruckzufuhren ist. In diesem Beitrag werden die Elemente und Merkmale zur Veranschaulichung des Ansatzes fur regionale Innovationssysteme untersucht. Wir nehmen eine Bewertung und Synthese des Paradigmas der regionalen Innovationssysteme vor und versuchen, Aufschluss uber zahlreiche Bereiche mit offenen theoretischen, empirischen und politischen Fragen zu geben. Wir beschreiben und bewerten die wichtigsten Stromungen der aktuellen theoretischen und empirischen Debatten und erortern, wie sich diese Debatten fortfuhren lassen, um zur Weiterentwicklung der Literatur uber regionale Innovationssysteme beizutragen. Die zentralen Themen, um die der Artikel strukturiert ist, grunden auf drei miteinander zusammenhangenden Fragen. Die erste dieser Fragen betrifft das wahre Wesen des eigentlichen Systems. Die zweite bezieht sich auf die Grenzen von Industriebezirken, Clustern und regionalen Innovationssystemen und die Rolle von kognitiven Grenzen, Wissensubertragung und Lernen. Die dritte bezieht sich auf die zentrale Rolle des Wissens und Lernens in Clustern und regionalen Innovationssystemen und insbesondere auf die Rolle und Funktion des Arbeitsmarktes. Diese drei bereichsubergreifenden Themen ermoglichen fur sich getrennt und gemeinsam neue theoretische, empirische und politische Erkenntnisse; ebenso werfen sie weitere Fragen auf, die kunftig zu umfangreicher weiterer Forschung Anlass geben sollten. Regionale Innovationssysteme Industriebezirke Cluster Wissen und Lernen Arbeitsmarkte Asheim B. T., Lawton Smith H. y Oughton C. Sistemas de innovacion regional: teoria, empirismo y politica, Regional Studies. El interes en los sistemas de innovacion regional ha crecido de modo significativo en los ultimos treinta anos, impulsado en parte por los avances en los analisis teoricos, en parte por el creciente interes en la innovacion como una fuente de ventaja competitiva y en parte por la necesidad de nuevas politicas que aborden las desigualdades y la divergencia regionales. En este articulo analizamos los elementos y las caracteristicas que ilustran el enfoque de los sistemas de innovacion regional. Ofrecemos una valoracion y sintesis del paradigma de los sistemas de innovacion regional con el objetivo de arrojar luz sobre toda una serie de areas en las que las cuestiones teoricas, empiricas y politicas quedan por responder. Destacamos y evaluamos las principales tendencias de los recientes debates teoricos y empiricos y analizamos como podrian desarrollarse para contribuir a un mayor progreso de la bibliografia sobre los sistemas de innovacion regional. Este articulo se ha estructurado basicamente en torno a tres cuestiones interrelacionadas. La primera cuestion trata sobre la propia naturaleza del mismo sistema. La segunda trata sobre los limites de las comarcas industriales, las aglomeraciones y los sistemas de innovacion regional, y el papel de las fronteras cognitivas, la transferencia de conocimiento y el aprendizaje. La tercera trata sobre el papel central del conocimiento y el aprendizaje en las aglomeraciones y los sistemas de innovacion regional, y especialmente sobre el papel y la funcion del mercado laboral. Estos tres temas transversales por separado y colectivamente ofrecen una nueva perspectiva teorica, empirica y politica; tambien plantean otras cuestiones cuya finalidad es estimular muchas mas investigaciones en el futuro. Sistemas de innovacion regional Comarcas industriales Aglomeraciones Conocimiento y aprendizaje Mercados de trabajo

Suggested Citation

  • Bjorn Asheim & Helen Lawton Smith & Christine Oughton, 2011. "Regional Innovation Systems: Theory, Empirics and Policy," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(7), pages 875-891.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:45:y:2011:i:7:p:875-891
    DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2011.596701
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    References listed on IDEAS

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